An Old Germanic Poetic Lexicon

A comparative vocabulary of Old Norse, Old English and Old Saxon, illustrating concepts and objects drawn mainly from the poetry.

(Updated 15 Sept 2011)

                                               

Introduction

This small glossary aims to provide a comparative poetic vocabulary of those Old Germanic dialects in which most poetry has been preserved, i.e. Old Norse, Old English and Old Saxon. Total inclusion or completeness is not possible but the aim has been to include as many words and phrases as possible which are characteristic both of the Old Germanic verse idiom and the ancient, heathen and heroic societies which the poetry generally reflected. Of especial interest therefore, are those terms and metaphors which relate to Dark Age and medieval warfare, weapons, heathen cult and deities, seafaring, folk beliefs, the supernatural, myth and legend, honour, heroic spirit and the upper strata of human society.

Quite many of the poetic words overlap into prose usage, however, and these are included, in addition to not a few items which are mainly found only in prose, for the sake of comparison and fullness.

The comparative lists in De Oudgermaansche Dichtertaal in haar Ethnologisch Verband [see booklist] have laid the bare foundation of this glossary but the majority of the words or compounds have been drawn from the following sources: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske Skjaldesprog by Egilsson and Jnsson, Norrn Ordbok by Heggstad (et al.), Clark Hall's Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, Barney's Wordhoard, Pollington's Wordcraft, Turville-Petre's Myth and Religion of the North and Heyne's Hliand, nebst den Bruchstcken der altschsischen Genesis, as well as Zoga's A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic and the glossaries to Galle's Altschsische Grammatik and Holthausen's Altschsisches Wrterbuch. The superb slensk Orabk, despite being a dictionary of modern Icelandic, is also useful for the ON poetic language and has proven very helpful in researching items which are not found in the ON dictionaries. Also exceptionally useful has been C.W.M. Grein's dedicated study Sprachschatz der Angelschsischen Dichter (although it would be considerably more useful if the OE items were translated into German and not Latin!). Finally, my own notes on OE and ON poetic vocabulary from 3 years' and 2 years' respective university study of the subjects and other later notes have done good service.

For far more poetic expressions in ON than is possible to include here, including the challenging kennings, the interested reader is referred to the excellent Ordbog over det norsk-islandske Skjaldesprog.

Hopefully the vocabulary given below will prove useful for those who are studying the ancient poetry of more than one ancient Germanic dialect, in addition to being fascinating from a comparative and semantic point of view. Just how uniform the basic world-view of our Germanic forefathers (at least that represented by the literate classes in the poetry and prose literature) was, will become clear from an examination of the words and idioms below.

Some of the numerous correspondences can be noted here. Examples follow the order given in the lists, i.e. ON - OE - (OS). It is important to bear in mind that many of the terms which appear in two or all three of the Old Germanic dialects examined here will have had usages or levels of style that differed relatively. An OE poetic term denoting "war", g, is frequently found in Old English poetry, and gth appears to be well favoured by Old Saxon writers too. The Old Norse equivalent, gunnr, is chiefly poetic but not much used outside names for valkyries and other terms are preferred in ON. Where I have some feeling for the relative commonality of the mutual terms, I have tried to indicate this. I have been unable to determine the style registers of the OS words but as rule of thumb, these will almost always conform to those of the corresponding OE words or idioms.

The poetic register tends to be more conservative and archaic than the vocabulary of prose, so that a poetic term in OE which is prosaic in ON, reflects different strata of vocabulary in those languages having become increasingly valid at differing times and the influence of different loanwords on OE and ON. So fra in OE was poetic, archaic and not especially used, while in ON freyr is known from the prose. Words which are poetic in OE and ON or even all three, suggest a stage of the vocabulary which was once common to the parent Germanic language - even in prose - but which now only survive in archaic poetic usage in the older forms of the Germanic dialects.

It is not easy to explain the discrepancies in the relative frequency and stylistic usage of words that the three dialects have in common. Why, for example, do OE and OS make frequent use of g and gth in the poetry, while ON uses cognate gunnr rarely (and then often in limited ways)? Why was ON jrmungrund still to be found in prose in the late medieval period, while its OE equivalent eormengrund was already poetic and archaic several centuries earlier? Why were words like ON jr, OE oh "steed" poetic and archaic in both already by the time of the earliest records? Why was ON meimar being only used in the poetry while its OE equivalent mm was also used in prose writings? Absence of a cognate in OS may well be due to obsolescence but we also have to reckon with it simply not having been recorded. Several factors may have given rise to such situations where certain words were favoured above others, some words were confined to a particular stylistic register or had even fallen out of use in one or more of the old Germanic dialects by the time of the earliest records. We have to reckon with issues such as different exposure to foreign influences, culture and loanwords (the priests and writers of the continental Saxons, for example, were more exposed to such influences than the Icelandic saga writers). The earlier conversion to Christianity (therefore a new literary genre and worldview) of first the Anglo-Saxons and then their kindred on the Continent in relation to the acceptance of Christ by the Scandinavians, must have amplified those cultural and lexical differences that already existed. The practices, beliefs and lower mythology that accompanied belief in the old Germanic gods were far more enduring in Scandinavia than in England or on the Continent, and this would come to be reflected in their literary output and the vocabulary used in it. Where old practices or beliefs still prevailed, the equally ancient terms used to describe them would still have a place in the vocabulary and literature. An important factor to consider is also providence - what have we been left with and what has been destroyed (deliberately or by accident)? It may be that a whole series of writings in OE and OS containing hitherto unknown words in poetry or prose have been destroyed because either their subject matter was deemed inappropriate or else their content did not suit the political establishment of the day. We simply do not know. But the extant evidence does tend to suggest that there was not a corresponding body of literature in OE or OS which refers directly to (or else alludes to) pre-Christian society and its beliefs, such as exists in ON. Since writing about such matters would have been taboo for the early Christian writers (living, as they were, in lands that had only been Christian for a few generations and were now threatened by heathen raiders from the north), we can expect that in time, the knowledge of the words used to express such older concepts and beliefs would have faded from memory, while in Scandinavia, this knowledge was largely kept alive.

Whatever the reasons, it is clear that already by the time of the earliest writings in their respective dialects, OE, OS and ON often differ to quite a degree concerning words of the common Germanic inheritance they still use, what they mean and what stylistic areas are in which they are used. Yet despite these differences, it is obvious from a glance at the wordlists below, that there is a great deal still in common and the differences are probably smaller than the commonalities. We are in a number of cases dealing with words of a common Germanic literary heritage. All three dialects are still capable of expressing the pre-Christian heroic ethos in their poetry and prose, aspects of their lower mythology and relating tales of their illustrious Germanic forefathers from bygone ages. Christian saints and heroes themselves are often described and depicted as if they were warriors and heroes of a pre-Christian age. Hopefully, the common Germanic heritage of these three different Germanic cultures will be made clear by the glossaries below and what they still have in common (rather than where they differ), be made manifest to the reader.

drttinn - dryhten - druhtin "lord, ruler" - the term is common in all three but I would say slightly more so in the West Germanic dialects.

jann - oden - thiodan "lord, prince" - these three are almost exclusively met with in the poetry, as far as I know.

valdandi - wealdend - waldand/waldo "ruler, lord" - Certainly in OE, the word is mainly a part of the poetic register, where it is often applied to God.

vsir - wsa - wso "leader, chief" - usage expands far into prose e.g. OE herewsa "general, leader in battle". ON vsi, however, is found only in the poetry.

vrr - weard - ward "guardian, protector, watchman" - are found in both prose and poetry, although in the sense of "king, ruler" mainly in poetry.

freyr - fra - frho "lord" - in ON it is found in prose but in OE only in the poetry. It was therefore probably an archaic term and obsolete in prose.

herra - hearra - hrro "lord" is late and prosaic in ON but poetic in OE. The ON word is a loan from Middle Low German.

jarl - eorl - erl "earl, nobleman, chief; man" - are found in both registers, but in OE poetic usage, only "man" is implied.

j - od - thiud "nation, people, folk" - are found in both registers.

lr - lod - liud "people, folk" - are found in poetry and prose.

gumi - guma - gumo "man, hero, warrior" - are poetic terms in OE and ON.

rekkr - rinc - rink "warrior, man" - found in ON prose, the OE equivalent is only from the poetry.

halr - hle - heli "hero, doughty warrior" - is from the poetic register in both ON and OE.

seggr - secg - segg "man, warrior" - is from the poetic register in both ON and OE.

kona/kvn - cwn - quena "woman, wife; queen" are clearly related words, even if the OE and OS words still retain the more elevated meanings of "queen, lady".

vf - wf(mann) - wf "wife" is poetic in ON but prosaic in both OE and OS.

mgr - mago - magu "son, youth" is prosaic in ON but poetic in OE, where is also has the wider meanings of "male kinsman; retainer, warrior".

ambtt - ambeht - ambaht(mann) are clearly the same word and aside from the gender difference, all refer to a state of service to a lord or master. The word appears to be mainly prosaic in all three dialects. The ON word has the additional meaning of "concubine".

meimar - mm - mom "treasure" - the OE term is also found in prose, but the ON equivalent is only found in poetry.

valr - wl - wal "slaughter, corpses of the slain" - all three terms are popular in prose and poetry.

hr - hrw - hro "carrion, slain bodies" - are found in poetry and prose.

svefn - swefn - swean "sleep; dream" - are considered mainly prosaic.

vg - wg - wg "war, battle" - are found in poetry and prose.

hildr - hild - hildia "battle" - are poetic terms in ON and OE.

gunnr - g - gth/gia "battle, war" is entirely poetic and infrequent in ON and although poetic in OE and OS, is rather more frequently encountered in these dialects. Part of the reason for the word becoming obsolete in ON can perhaps be attributed to its use as a valkyrie name and its use in personal names.

herr - here - heri means primarily in ON and OE "army, troops, host" but generally carries a wider meaning of "people, folk" in OS. It is found in both registers in all three dialects.

hjrr - heoro - heru- "sword" - is poetic in OE but found in both registers in ON.

mkir - mce - mki "sword" - is poetic in OE but found in both registers in ON (cf. Gothic mkeis).

bor - bord - bord "shield" - are poetic terms in ON and OE.

sveiti - swt - swt is prosaic to mean both "sweat" and "blood" in ON but the latter meaning is poetic only in OE.

grma - grma - grmo "helmet" (lit. "mask") - is poetic in OE but found in both registers in ON.

megin - mgen - megin means in ON, OE and OS "power, might, strength" but also carries a further meaning in OE and OS of "troops, force". It is found in both registers in all three dialects.

viggr - wicg - wigg "steed, horse" - are poetic terms in ON and OE.

hof - hof - hof illustrates a clear North vs. West Germanic split. In ON the word denoted "heathen temple" and is often found in Norwegian and Icelandic place-names (a secondary and later meaning of "court" derives from Middle Low German influence). In OE and OS (and the West Germanic languages in general) the primary meaning is "farm, enclosure, dwelling, house" (although in OE it could also denote a heathen temple).

stt - suht - suht are all the same word and they have not diverged in meaning. The word is prosaic in all three dialects.

svelta - sweltan - sweltan all denote "die, perish" (also "starve" in ON) and represents one of the many OE stems we have lost from English (cf. derivative swylt). The verb is mainly prosaic.

deyja - diegan - dian "die" is perhaps a late loan into OE, probably from ON (although it may represent a lost Anglian dgan).

mla - (ge)mlan - mahlian "speak, say, talk" are all prosaic (wheras OE maelian is mainly poetic). We could also mention the prosaic segja - secgan - seggian "say, speak", and the slightly more elevated kvea - cwean - quean "say, speak" (cf. archaic English quoth).

ur/unnr - - ia "wave" - are found in poetry and prose.

nkkvi - naca - nako "ship, boat" is prosaic in ON but from OE poetry.

nar - ndre - nadara "adder, snake, viper" is prosaic in all three dialects.

fold - folde - fold "earth, ground" - is poetic in OE but found in both registers in ON.

holt - holt - holt is prosaic in all three dialects (cf. German Holz) although it is hardly common in ON, where vir and skgr are the preferred terms. The word is still found in a slightly narrower sense in modern English. In modern Icelandic it is now a poetic word.

fjrr - feorh - ferah "life" - is found in prose and poetry in ON and OE (cf. also Gothic fairhvus, OHG ferah, OFris. ferech).

migarr - middangeard - middilgard "earth, the middle kingdom" - are considered mainly prosaic. In OE and OS, the terms probably originally denoted the dwelling of men see from a heathen viewpoint (just as in ON migarr) but could easily be adapted to meet a Christian ideology, with Hell below and Heaven above the world of men.

tungl - tungol - tungal "star, moon, celestial body" - are considered mainly prosaic. The ON word is still very much alive and productive in modern Icelandic.

ss - s - s "heathen god, godhead, divinity" is mainly prosaic in ON and OE and presumably also in OS.

v - wg - wh "heathen shrine, temple; idol" is prosaic in ON but mainly poetic in OE. It is found in numerous place-names, particularly in Norway and Sweden, as well as being known in a few English toponyms (see my article on traces of heathen cult in Germanic place-names).

hrgr - hearg - harug has a complex and disputed history. Simply put, the earliest meaning appears to be one of rock face (and indeed in some Norwegian place-names it must have this meaning) which later developed into "cairn, heap of stones" to "stone altar" to "heathen shrine, sacred spot or site". In OE it only has the meaning of "heathen shine; idol", whereas a second meaning in ON is "rock, crag". It is prosaic in ON and OE.

inn/Vden - Woden - Wodan/Wdin the meaning of the ON stem is disputed, r meant "furious, wild, raging" as well as "mind, feeling" and both may apply to the character of inn (de Vries). The ON form may well be a development of an older name r (cf. the situation regarding Ullr and Ullinn). The OE form must certainly be attributed to the first of these (OE wd "senseless, mad, furious") and the OS form likewise to the equivalent OS stem (cf. OS wdian "rage, storm, rave"). The forms and their variations derive from Gmic. *Wanaz and *Winaz.

rr - unor - Thunar literally "thunder". An older ON form is unnarr and is a therefore a form rather closer to the West Germanic forms.

A phrasal idiom identical in form and content is interesting to note in all three dialects:

alda brn - ielda bearn - eldi barn "the children of men" (i.e. human beings) - it would appear that such is a stock idiom of the Old Germanic dialects. Several other similar phrases exist in all three of the dialects but this is closest to exact conformity.

Next we find many exact lexical parallels between ON words and OE words:

jr - oh (where the ON form shows breaking) "steed" are terms known only from poetry; hilmir - helm "protector, helm, prince" the OE word is from the poetic register; baldr - bealdor "prince, king, lord" is poetic in both dialects; engill - fengel "prince, king" is poetic in both dialects; firar-fras "men" are both found in the plural form from the poetry; arfi - earfora "inheritor, heir, son" is prosaic in ON but from OE poetry; b - beado "battle, war" are both from the poetic register; eggleikr - ecgplega "edge-play, battle" is an example of a quite sophisticated poetic metaphor which is identical in ON and OE; brynja - byrne "corslet, mailshirt" is found in both registers; fleinn - fln "spear, dart" is found in both registers in both OE and ON; r - earh "arrow" is prosaic in ON but from OE poetry; lind - lind "(lindwood) shield" is poetic in OE but also found in the prose of ON; brim - brim "surf, sea, ocean" is prosaic in ON but from OE poetry; eik - c "ship of oak, ship" is prosaic in ON but from OE poetry; ormr - wyrm (where the ON form show characteristic proto-Norse loss of initial semi-vowel w before a suceeding vowel) "snake, serpent, dragon" are prosaic, although both form many compounds found in the poetry; snkr - snaca "snake, serpent" is prosaic in OE but from ON poetry; freki - freca "greedy one, wolf" is not a recorded form when standing alone in OE but is known from poetic compounds denoting "warrior", the ON word is poetic; jrmungrund - eormengrund "the earth" is prosaic in ON but from OE poetry; urs - yrs "giant, ogre" are prosaic in both dialects; jtunn - eoten "giant" is poetic in OE but well known in ON prose; mold - molde "earth, world; soil, land" is prosaic in both dialects; baugbroti - baga brytta "breaker of rings, lord" there are a number of this type but this particular example is perhaps the closest lexically; lfr - lf "elf, fairy" is prosaic in both dialects; pki - pca/pcel "goblin" is prosaic in ON and OE. The OE word is also found in a number of nature-names in the English landscape, as well as being preserved as the rarely-heard English word puck; dvergr - dweorg "dwarf" is prosaic in both dialects (note: of these last three examples I have no instances from OS, but I am certain that at least OS equivalents of dweorg and lf existed); blt - blt "sacrifice" is prosaic in both dialects (cf. OHG bluostar "sacrifice"; I have no data on a possible OS equivalent at this time).

A few ON - OS lexical parallels which appear to lack OE analogues are worth noting:

vgmar - wgmann "warrior" is an exact lexical parallel, the ON word is prosaic and the same would appear to apply to the OS word; himinn - himil "sky, heavens" is prosaic - I am not clear about the relation to OE heofon; erna - thiorna "maid servant" - the ON term is prosaic and so I would imagine is the OS word - OE of course offers related words for serving-folk but I cannot find an exact equivalent to this word.

Next, some OE - OS parallels which are not known from ON can be noted. As OE and OS are both closely related Old West Germanic dialects, this is to be expected of course:

ealdor - aldor "lord, prince" is prosaic in OE; grhete - grheti "spear-hate, dire emnity, battle" is a fascinating parallel and one tends to look for borrowing in such expressions, although parallel development is equally feasible. The OE term is poetic; eorerce - er-rki "the earthly kingdom, the world of men" is most probably a parallel development and is prosaic in OE; rodor - radur "sky, the heavens" is mainly found in the OE poetic register; mdsefa - mdseo "heart, mind" is poetic in OE and no doubt in OS; wlda - wal-d "violent death, murder" is prosaic in OE; werod - werod means "troop, host; folk" in both OE and OS and while it is mainly poetic in OE, it appears to be more prosaic in OS; gesas - gi-sili the OE word is poetic and would normally mean "companions" but may also denote "band of warriors, troop" just the the related OS word. In OE the stem of the word forms several poetic compounds; hord - hord is an OE and OS only term denoting "treasure hoard" and is found in both registers; wela - welo meaning "wealth, riches" is found in the poetry and the prose; flet(t) - flet denotes in both dialects "hall, house, dwelling" but has in OE the additional meaning of "floor". It is found in the poetry and the prose; leger - legar "illness" appears not to exist in ON. It is related to the verb "to lie" and is prosaic in OE; cwealm - qualm "(violent) death, murder" represents an OE-OS wordpair, although we can find the clearly related kvl "torment, torture" and kvelja "torment, torture" in ON, even though the meaning has diverged considerably. The word is prosaic in OE and OS; gehweorfan - hwerian have hardly diverged at all in meaning. Both are prosaic. The related ON horfa and hverfa have diverged too far in meaning to be applicable here; sprecan - sprekan and cwiddian - queddian (note relation to cwean-quean and ON kvea) mean "speak, say" and "talk, speak" respectively. The stem for sprecan is non-existent in ON (modern Scandinavian sprk/sprog is a Middle Low German loan); n - n is found in both registers in OE (related but divergent ON n means "insult, libel"); heofontungol - hean-tungal is poetic in OE and OS; reced - rukud diverge slightly in meaning, with the OS word also denoting "temple". The word is poetic in OE; ealh - alah "heathen temple" is poetic in OE and presumably also in OS. Derived from Germanic *alhs, it is known from one or two English place-names and some toponymists believe a parallel but unrecorded ON word *al also existed but this is only hypothetical; hyrde - hirdi meaning literally "shepherd" but also used in OE and OS prose to denote "lord, guardian, keeper"; gewtan - giwtan "depart; die" is found in both registers in OE.

Finally, a number of close parallels of idiom exist - relating to form, content and meaning. Such highlight the close modes of semantic construction and, of course, the similar world-views and material conditions of the ancient Germanic peoples. The poetry is especially rich in these parallels of idiom, since it often seeks to describe more or less everyday matters or objects by way metaphoric imagery. Such imagery would, to a large extent, be common to the Norseman, the Anglo-Saxon and Saxon of the continent, and hence we often find strikingly similar metaphors and idioms being expressed in the poetic (but also the prose) language of all three:

ennitungl - hofodes sigel - ON: "moon of the forehead", OE: "sun of the head" - both mean "eye"; ormbl - wyrmhord - ON: "dragon's couch", OE: "dragon's hoard" - both mean "that which a dragon sits upon, treasure-hoard"; mjrann - meduheall both denote "mead-hall, hall where mead is served"; geirleikr - scplega - ON: "spear-play", OE: "ash-wood spear play" - both denote "battle"; vpnruma - wpenracu - ON: "the thunder of weapons", OE: "the clashing of weapons" - both denote "battle"; gunnblik - hildeloma - ON: "the gleam of battle", OE: "the light of battle" - both denote "sword" (i.e. that which gleams or flashes in battle); undsveiti - heaoswt - ON: "wound-sweat", OE: "battle-sweat" - both denote "blood"; vgmarr - wghengest - ON: "mare of the waves", OE: "horse of the waves" - both denote "ship"; gullbi - goldweard - ON: "one who dwells with gold", OE: "one who guards the gold" - both denote "dragon"; hrsvelgr - wlcasiga - ON: "chooser of carrion", OE: "chooser of the slain" - the ON denotes "eagle" and the OE, "raven"; valkyrja - wlcyrige - ON: "choser of the slain", OE: "chooser of the slain" - the OE term however has come to mean "witch, sorceress", whereas the ON term of course means "valkyrie"; feorh lecgan - ferah farltan - OE: "lay down, give up one's life", OS: "leave life" - both are a circumlocutive manner of expressing "to die"; forweg - forgang - OE: "the way forth, forward", OS: "journeying forth" - both denote "death" and there several others like these.

In terms of complexity of idiom and metaphor, ON poetic constructs in the form of the kenning and heiti, often far exceed the complexity of those from OE and OS and many verge on opaqueness. Owing to limits of space, time, resources, authorial knowledge and the aims of the article, ON constructions of the type sra orns sveita svanr "swan of the sweat of the thorn of wounds" (i.e. raven) cannot be included here, although some more concise examples of this type are given. Many such kennings are found only in the works of one author, in one manuscript only, or once only in a manuscript. Despite being extremely interesting, from the point of view of comparison and the facilitation of the learning of vocabulary, such constructions are of very limited use and will not repay the time taken to document them. The aim of this article is to include single words or small compound words (with the exception of a small number of larger idioms) taken from the general poetic (and prosaic) stock of words used by several or many authors.

As a fascinating aside, we can note that ON muspell (i.e. Muspellsheimr, "the destruction of the world") has a direct parallel in Old High German mspilli. Cognates are not known in either OE or OS, as far as I know.

To what extent has the poetic vocabulary of these Old Germanic dialects survived into their modern descendants of English, Icelandic and Low Saxon? Well, any native speaker of English will immediately recognise how much we have lost from the OE poetic stock of words in particular. This is at least partly because many of the poetic terms describe the concerns, ideas and possessions of the higher social classes. Following the Norman Conquest, which was largely a conquest by noblemen, such native terms describing nobility, kinship, weapons and warfare, treasure, retainers and court etc. were replaced by the Norman's own terms and hence ceased to exist. However, two other factors also have played their part. One is that many of the poetical terms are just that - only found in the poetry and hence were probably never known to those outside the noble or educated classes. Secondly, poetic vocabulary and devices went through fashions and what was fashionable for some time could soon be yesterday's news when some new idiom or metre was introduced. Something of the OE poetic idiom did survive into the early Middle English alliterative poems of the West Midlands like Lagamon's Brut, but even there, the style and lyrical feel of the classic West Saxon poetic imagery never quite achieved full representation. The everyday language of the common people was far more enduring.

In striking contrast, the great majority of the root words, if not the compounds themselves, are still known in modern Icelandic, and if not in active use, can nevertheless be found in a decent monolingual dictionary. There are far too many direct descendants to be considered here and the interested reader should consult the excellent slensk Orabk, where they can be found in their hundreds, nay thousands. But just to give a very small taster of the modern situation, seikona "witch" is modern seikona, oddviti "leader, ruler" is modern oddviti, risi "giant" gives modern risi, flkbardagi "great battle" gives modern flkbardagi, tungl still means "moon" and so on. Compare the same terms between OE and modern English, and we only have wicce "witch" surviving from OE. Of course, many of the ON compounds would no longer be used by modern Icelanders, but this not because (as in the case of OE) they are not understood, but simply that the conditions they describe or images they use are not relevant to the modern world.

It is largely for this reason of an untainted vocabulary (although a very conservative grammatical system as plays a role) that Icelanders can still read their ancient literature with little difficulty, while the loss of a great chunk of the Old English vocabulary means the modern English speaker has to learn OE words just as he or she learns the vocabulary of French or German and until he or she does so, the treasure of OE poetry (and to a lesser extent) the prose, is denied him or her.

The situation regarding Old Saxon and modern Low Saxon is rather different and more complex. A Low Saxon speaking contact and friend, and an expert on the language, took a look at a small list of OSax. (mainly) poetic terms I provided him. Even after looking some up in reference sources, the majority of the OSax. terms could not be found even in MLS, let alone modern Low Saxon. A few have surviving cognates in modern German but most appear to be long extinct. What follows is a list of those which survived into MLG or are still found in modern Low Saxon (cognate forms in brackets):

heli "man, hero" (OE hle) MLS hel(i)t, ModLS Held, ModG Held 'hero';

lk(hamo) "body" (OE lchama, ON lk) MLS lke, ModLS Liek, ModG Leiche, Leichnam 'corpse', ModDutch lichaam 'body';

liudi "people" (OE lod, ON lj) MLS lt, lde, ModLS Lde, Ld', Le, Le, ModG Leute, ModDutch lui;

quena "lady" (OE cwn, mod. queen) MLS qune, ModLS Queen 'female animal';

rink "warrior" (OE rinc, ON rekkr) MLS --, ModLS Reck, ModG Reck(e);

thioda "people, nation" (OE od, ON j) MLS ddesch, ModLS dtsch (< earlier dd+isch), ModG deutsch;

thionustman "servant, retainer" (ON junstumar) MLS dn(e)stman, ModLS Deenstmann, ModG Dienstmann;

thiorna "maid servant" (ON erna) MLS drne, ModLS Deern, Diern 'girl', ModG Dirn(e) 'girl', 'whore';

Some of these have changed in meaning since OSax. times (e.g. quena, thiorna), while others appear to have died out and been reintroduced from High German (e.g. Reck).

The following do not appear to have any analogues in MLS or modern Low Saxon:

aldor "king, lord" (OE ealdor) MLS --, ModLS --, ModG --

barn "child, son" (OE bearn, ON barn) MLS --, ModLS --, ModG

drohtin, druhtin "lord" (OE dryhten, ON drttinn) MLS --, ModLS --, ModG Truchsess

eldi "men" (OE ieldas, ON aldir) MLS --, ModLS --, ModG --

erl "nobleman" (OE eorl, ON jarl) MLS --, ModLS --, ModG --

firihs "men" (OE fras, ON firar) MLS --, ModLS --, ModG --

frho, frjo "lord" (OE fra, ON freyr) MLS --, ModLS --, ModG Freiherr

gumo "man" (OE guma, ON gumi) MLS --, ModLS --, ModG --

hagastald "servant" MLS --, ModLS --, ModG --

magu "son, youth" (OE magu) MLS --, ModLS --, ModG --

segg "man" (OE secg, ON seggr) MLS --, ModLS --, ModG --

skalk "servant" (OE scealc) MLS --, ModLS --, MHG schalk, MDu. skalk

thegan "man, warrior" (OE egn) MLS --, ModLS --, ModG Degen (poetic)

thiodan "prince, lord" (OE oden, ON jann) MLS --, ModLS --, ModG --

thiu "maid" (OE owa) MLS --, ModLS --, ModG --

thiwa "female servant" (OE owa) MLS --, ModLS --, ModG --

waldand "ruler, lord" (OE wealdand, ON valdandi) MLS --, ModLS --, ModG --

ward "protector" (OE weard, ON vrr) MLS --, ModLS --, ModG Wrter 'guard'

wer "adult male" (OE wer) MLS --, ModLS --, ModG --

wso "leader, lord" (OE wsa, ON vsir) MLS --, ModLS --, ModG --

 

Explanation of terms generally follows this pattern: word "literal translation, figural meaning".

So in the OE idiom eorla hlo the literal translation "defender of earls" is given first, followed by the figural meaning "king"; in the ON compound bryngagl, the literal translation "corslet-goose" is given first, followed by the figural meaning "arrow".

Where it has not been possible to translate literally the meaning of a word or compound (as in the case of many of the insheiti - names for Odin) or the etymology is obscure, the implied or figural meaning only is given.

 

 

1) Human Being, Human Body and Society

a) King

ON: drttinn "chief, king", hildingr "king, chief, prince, hero", konungr "king", kngr "king", lji "leader of the people, king", jann "leader of the nation, king", fylkir "king, chief", stjri "ruler, king", valdr "wielder, king, chief", vsir and vsi "leader, king", flkvrr "guardian of the people, king", gumna stjri "ruler of men, king", herkonungr "war-king", bauga deilir "distributor of rings, king", gullmilandi "distributor of gold, king", svera deilir "distributor of swords, king, lord" (also "warrior"), jkongungr "nation's king", gullvrpur "distributor of gold, king", drttnari "ruler, king", hringbroti "river-giver, king" (lit. "breaker of rings"), flkrekr "chief, ruler", gramr "wroth one, king, lord", sjli "chief, king", skyli "prince, king", yngvi "king, chief", valdandi "ruler, king", baugbroti "distributor of rings, king" (lit."breaker of rings"), flkstjri "commander in battle, king", skjldungr "king, earl", skilfingr "chief, prince, king", skonungr "sea-king", jkonungr "king of the nation", konungmar "royal man, king", deilir aldar "ruler of men, king, prince".

OE: cyning "king", cyng "king", hah-cyning "high-king", odcyning "king of the nation", folccyning "king of the people", bregoweard "protector of princes, king", fra "king, lord", healdend "ruler, king", wealdend "wielder, king", rca "ruler, king", rcsere "ruler, king", hyrde "shepherd, king, guardian", hlo "defender, king", helm "protector, king", eodor "king, prince", landfruma "foremost of the nation, king", lodfruma "foremost of the people, king", folces weard "guardian of the people, king", rces weard "guardian of the realm, king", ierfeweard "guardian of heritage, king", dryhtenweard "guardian of earls, king", gumena weard "defender of men, king", eorla hlo "defender of earls, king", folces hierde "shepherd of the people, king", goldgifa "gold-giver, king", goldes brytta "distributor of gold, king", hordweard "guardian of the (gold) hoard, king", baga brytta "distributor of rings, king", sinca bealdor "guardian of treasure, king", bealdor "prince, king", lodcyning "king of the people", gumfra "lord of men, king", gweard "battle-ward, king".

OS: aldor "king, lord", kuning "king", landes hirdi "shepherd of the nation, king", bggeo "ring-giver, king", bgwini "ring-friend, king", flkkuning "folk-king", thiod-kuning "folk-king, king of the nation", medgo "treasure-giver, king", aal-kuning "noble king", thiodan "king, prince, lord", landwsa "lord, king", druhting "lord, leader".


b) Prince

ON: rsir "chief, prince", engill "prince", fylkir "prince", hilmir "helm, prince", jaarr "prince, lord", jfurr "prince, lord", jar engill "prince of the nation", konungbarn "king's son, prince", konungssonr "king's son, prince", skyli "prince, king", flks-jaarr "prince of the people", skilfingr "chief, prince, king", hildingr "king, chief, , prince, hero", deilir drttar "ruler of the war-band, prince, chief", deilir aldar "ruler of men, king, prince", konungsefni "kingly material, prince", aldar undr "Odin of men, prince, chief".

OE: eling "noble one, prince", bealdor "prince, lord", oden "prince, lord", rswa "prince, king", brego "prince, lord", fengel "prince", frareccere "prince", odfruma "foremost among the nation, prince, lord", eodor "prince, king".

OS: thiodan "prince, king, lord", momgio "treasure-giver, prince", medgo "treasure-giver, prince".


c) Lord, Earl, Chief, General/Commander

ON: drttinn "chief, king", vsir "one who guides, leader", jaarr " prince, lord ", jfurr " prince, lord ", herbaldr "war-leader", baugbroti "ring-giver, lord", hringdrifi "giver of rings, lord", flkrekr "chief, lord", valdsherra "lord, ruler", hringbroti "ring-giver, lord", gullvrpur "gold-giver, lord", hfingi "lord, chief", jarl "earl", gramr "wroth one, king, lord" sjli "chief, king", yngvi "king, chief", heifrmur "promoter of wealth, lord", flkvrr "folk-ward, lord", hershfingi "commander of the army", libaldr "lord of the army, chief", hersir "chief, king", herstefnandi and herstefnir "chief, commander of the host", auskati "governor of the wealth, lord", skjldungr "earl, lord, king", oddviti "leader, chief", stefnir "ruler", flkvaldi "ruler of the army, leader", rgnir "ruler", skilfingr "chief, prince, king", deilir drttar "ruler of the war-band, prince, chief", valdr and valdi "wielder, king, chief", aldar undr "Odin of men, prince, chief", lvarr "loaf-ward, lord" (a prose loan from OE hlford), freyr "lord", herra "lord, master" (a loan from Middle Low German).

OE: dryhten "lord", oden "lord, prince", eodor "lord, prince", eorl "earl, nobleman", werodes ealdor "lord of the host", rinca bealdor "ruler of the army", wigena bealdor "ruler of the army", herewsa "leader in battle, chief", wigena hlo "defender of warriors, lord", goldwine "gold-friend, lord", bahgifa "ring-giver, lord", sincgifa "treasure-giver, lord", hlford "loaf-ward" (i.e. lord), fra "lord, king", folcfra "lord of the people", bealdor "lord", ealdor "lord, prince", hearra "lord", mondryhten "lord of men", hlfording "lord", fradryhten "lord", frawine "lord-friend", hlodryhten "lord", elweard "guardian of the homeland, lord, ruler", landfruma "land-leader, lord", hildefruma "leader in battle, chief", folctoga "leader of the host, chief, lord", hererswa "battle-lord", wgfruma "leader in battle, chief", landhlford "lord of the land", wsa "leader", heretoga "chief, general", hringafengel "ring-lord", goldwine gumena "gold-friend of men, lord", goldgiefa "gold-giver, lord", hildewsa "leader of the host, chief", campealdor "lord of the battle, chief", rswa "prince, lord", frumgr "commander, lord", gcyning "war-king, chief", ealdorwsa "lord, ruler", fruma "one who is foremost, superlative", winedryht "lord-friend, protector", baga brytta "breaker of rings, lord" (i.e. distributor), mgenwsa "main-leader" (i.e. lord of the host), fierdwsa "levy-lord, commander", lodfruma "folk-leader, ruler", sigedryhten "victorious lord", mmgifa "giver of treasure, lord", selerdend "hall-ruler, lord", gumdryhten "lord to men, lord", gfra "war-lord, chief, commander", adfruma "author of prosperity, lord", adgifa "giver of wealth, lord".

OS: aldor "lord, king", burgesward "guardian of the borough, nobleman, lord", mdgeo "treasure-giver, lord", momgio "treasure-giver, lord", thiodan "lord, king, prince", bgwini "ring-friend, lord", heritogo "leader in battle, lord", mandrohtin "lord", hrro "lord", frho, frjo "lord", drohtin, druhtin "lord", erl "nobleman", wso "leader, lord", waldand "ruler, lord", ward "protector, lord", folk-togo "leader of the host, lord", thiod-gumo "nobleman, earl", waldo "ruler", hirdi "lord".


d) Queen

ON: ds "goddess, queen", drttning "queen, princess".

OE: cwn "queen", hlfdige "lady, queen", friouwebbe "weaver of peace, queen".

OS: quena "lady, queen; wife".


e) Man, Mankind, People, Nation

ON: aldir "men", firar "men", flk "people", gumi "man, adult male", li "folk, troop, people", mengi "crowd", alda brn "the children of men, human beings", megir Heimdallar "the offspring of Heimdallr, human beings", herraflk "manfolk", j "nation", lj "people", ljmegir "men", drttmegir "people, men", fjrvar "men".

OE: fras "men", menn "men", weras "menfolk", reordberend "bearer of speech, human being", feorhberend "bearer of life, human being", woroldwniend "earthly dweller, human", eardbend "dweller on the earth, human being", foldbend "dweller on the earth, human being", gumena bearn "the children of men, humans", ielda bearn "the children of men, humans", wera bearn "the children of men, humans", manncynn "mankind", menniscnes "mankind, humanity", od "nation", lod "people", folc "folk, people", eormencynn "earth-kin, mankind", eorbend "earth-dweller, human being", swolberende "soul-bearer, human being", folcweras "men, people", gumrinc "man", gumegn "man", gstberende "soul-bearer, human being", wpnedman "man, adult male", guma "man, warrior".

OS: eldi "men", firihs "men", folk "people", mannisk "human being", wer "adult male", eldi barn "the children of men, humans", manno barn "the children of men, humans", gumono barn "the children of men, humans", gumonokunni "mankind, humankind", mannokunni "mankind, humankind", eldo barn "the children of men, humans", menniskno barn "the children of men, humans", firih barn "the children of men, humans", liudi "people", thioda "people, nation", gumo "man, warrior", liud-folk "people, subjects", liudi barn "the children of men, humans", er-bandi "dweller on earth, human being, man", thiod "folk, people, nation", folkskepi "people", werod "folk, people, troop, host", heri "people, folk", heriskepi "people, folk", rki "realm, people".

 

f) Man, Hero, Warrior - (note the remark made by Portengen:

"De beteekenissen van man, krijgsman en dapper man loopen dikwijls in elkaar en kunnen niet streng geschieden worden." (p.14)).

ON: drengr "brave young man", halr "man", kappi "hero", rekkr "man, warrior", karl "man", karlmar "man", seggr "man", gautr, gauti "man" (poetical), jfurr "boar, warrior", baldrii "brave horseman", berserkr "bear-sark, fearless warrior", gunnhvati "brave in war", geirnjrr "skillful with the spear", hermar "warrior", hermgr "battle-youth, warrior", brr skjaldar "shield-tree, warrior", hildimeir "battle-tree, warrior", dlgvir "battle-tree, warrior", vpna hlynr "weapon-tree, warrior", hrttameir "sword-tree, warrior", jrnskjldr "iron-shield, warrior", sverberari "sword-wielder, warrior", fetrjr Hugins "reddener of the claws of Huginn, warrior" (Huginn (literally "thought") was a raven of Odin), gunnvala brir "feeder of battle-hawks, warrior", munnrjr Hugins "reddener of the bill of Huginn, warrior", lfs tannlituur "one who reddens the tooth of the wolf, warrior", hrafngrennir "raven-feeder, warrior", kappsmar "warrior-hero", geirmimir "spear-Mimir, warrior", geirnjrr "spear-Njrr, warrior", orrostamar "warrior", strsmar "warrior", vgamar "warrior", hjrdrfr "sword-driver, warrior", herbaldr "warrior", dlgrgnir "ruler of the strife, warrior", hjlmstafr "helm-stave" (i.e. one who is capped by a helmet, a warrior), skjldsveinn "shield-bearer, warrior", lismar "member of the troop, warrior, man", lii "member of the troop, warrior, man", vallrjandi "reddener of the ground, warrior", valtvi "slaughter-god, warrior", hjrdrtt "noble sword-bearer, warrior", vglfr "war-elf, warrior", vgfreyr "lord of battle, warrior", vgfrmur "advocate of war, warrior", vghlynr "(maple)tree of battle, warrior", vglundr "battle-tree, warrior", vgmilungr "dealer in war, warrior", vgnjrr "battle-Njrr, warrior", flkhagi "one skilful in battle, warrior", hergltur "destroyer in war, warrior", hildingr "warrior", dlgs runnr "bush of the battle, warrior", gunn-nrungr "war-man, warrior", gunn-strandi "advocate of battle, warrior", bnjrr "battle-Njrr, warrior", bstyrkir "help in battle, warrior", egglitar "dyer of edges (i.e. with blood), warrior", sverrjr "reddener of swords, warrior", sverrgnir "wielder of swords, warrior", sverfreyr "lord of swords, warrior", geirkundr "son of the spear, warrior", brynjumeir "armoured-tree, warrior", brynjlfr "armoured elf, warrior", hjlmdrtt "noble helmet bearer, warrior", hjlmnjtr "user of a helmet, warrior", hjlmrkjandi "helmetted doer or agent, warrior", hjlmollr "helmet-tree, warrior", skjalda lmr "man of shields, warrior", skjaldhlynr "shield-(maple)tree, warrior", spjta hlynr "(maple)tree of spears, man, warrior", spjta njtr "user of spears, man, warrior", spjta sveigir "bender of spears, man, warrior", lfgrennir "one who feeds the wolf, man, warrior", hrafnfir "feeder of the raven, warrior", sigrvir "victory-tree, warrior", sigfreyr "victory-lord, warrior", signjrr "victory-Njrr, man, warrior", sigreynir "victory-(rowan)tree, man, warrior", sigrunnr "victory-bush, man, warrior", valsfandi "offerer of slaughter, warrior", hringberandi "ring-bearer, man", hringdrifi "one who wields a sword, man", hringollr "sword-tree, man", lmr "man", skati "man", sverabaldr "lord of swords, warrior, man", sverlfr "sword-elf, man, warrior", svergautr "sword-god, warrior, man", brodda rjr "reddener of points, warrior".

OE: cempa "warrior", retta "warrior", retmecg "battle-man, warrior", wga "warrior", hererinc "battle-warrior", hildemecg "battle-man, warrior", hilderinc "battle-warrior", gbeorn "war-hero, man", gfreca "wolf of war, warrior", grinc "battle-warrior", gwiga "battle-warrior", hle "hero", lindhbbende "shield-bearer, warrior", randhbbende "shield-bearer, warrior", bordhbbende "shield-bearer, warrior", searohbbende "one who wears armour, warrior", helmberende "helmeted one, warrior", scberende "ash-spear-bearer, warrior", scildfreca "shield-wolf, warrior", sweordfreca "sword-wolf, warrior", wgfreca "wolf of war, warrior", gfreca "wolf of war, warrior", hildfreca "wolf of war, warrior", hildewulf "wolf of war, warrior", herewulf "wolf of war, warrior", heorowulf "wolf of war, warrior", scotend "one who shoots, shooter of arrows or darts, archer", wpen and gewde beran "bear arms and armour", hyrsta beran "bear war-gear", hringnet beran "wear a corslet", scieldas beran "carry shields", grberende "spear-bearer, warrior", rinc "warrior", wgend "warrior", byrnwga "armoured warrior", scyldwga "shield-warrior", heaorinc "battle-warrior", heremcg "war-hero, man", secg "man, warrior", dreng "young man, warrior" (a loan from Old Danish), beorn "man, hero", freca "warrior, hero" (lit. "wolf"), heremann "warrior", beadurinc "battle-warrior", fierdmann "member of the levy", fierdrinc "levy-warrior", folcwga "warrior of the nation", wgbora "war-bearer", wgsmi "war-smith", byrnwgend "armoured warrior", hildstapa "battle-stepper, warrior", beornwga "man-warrior", lindwga "lind-wood shield warrior", lindwgend "lind-wood shield warrior", randwga "shield-warrior", randwgend "shield-warrior", grwga "spear-warrior", grwgend "spear-warrior", scbora "ash-spear bearer, warrior", scwga "ash-spear warrior", rymma "warrior", wpnedmann "armed man, male", herewa "warrior", herewsa "warrior", sigecempa "victorious warrior", wgfruma "warrior", wlwulf "slaughter-wolf, warrior", heoruwearh "sword-wolf, warrior", hilderymma "warrior", wpenwga "beweaponed warrior", gfruma "warrior", gmaga "warrior", sweordberende "sword-bearer, warrior", sweordwgend "sword-warrior", dryhtguma "retainer; warrior", gmcga "warrior".

OS: segg "man", heri-rink "warrior", helmberand "helmet-bearer, warrior", helm-gitrsteo "one equipped with a helmet, warrior", hildiskalk "warrior", wpan-berand "weapon-bearer, warrior", swerdthegan "swordsman", gumo "man", thegan "man, warrior", rink "warrior", wgman "war-man, warrior", wgand "fighter, warrior", heli "man, hero", gi-trosteo "warrior, Gefolgsmann", swerddrago "sword-bearer, warrior".

 

g) Army, Troop, Comitatus/Gefolgsmenn

ON: drtt "(royal) body-guard", vgdrtt "war-troop", vgli "war-troop", flkdrtt "battle-troop", lismen "followers, warriors", lisafli "troops, forces", liskostr "force", lisfjldi "great host", herr "army, troops", herfer "host", herflokkr "war-flock", herflk "war-host", herli "war-band", hermegir "war-men, warriors", hernaar-flk "forayers", hernaar-menn "forayers", hjlmdrtt "helmeted troop", drttmegir "men", flk "host, army", skrviir "shield-trees, host of warriors", geir-Niflungar "spear-Nifelungs, warriors, troop", vgdrtt "war-host, warriors".

OE: here "army, foraying force", fierd "levies, army", folc "army, troop", getruma "troop", campwerod "battle-host, army", ghere "war-troop", landfierd "national army, levies", fierdwerod "levy-host", herefolc "army", heremgen "army, troop", beadurat "battle-host, army", odhere "folk-army", folcmgen "folk-main" (i.e. armed force), rat "troop", wghap "war-heap, throng of warriors", flocc "troop" (lit. "flock"), werod "host, troop", gedryht "troop of proven warriors", lodmgen "folk-main" (i.e. armed force), gesrden "comitatus-band, troop of followers", gesmgen "comitatus-main" (i.e. troop of armed comrades), grgetruma "spear-troop", eorlmgen "earl-main, troop of noble warriors", eorlwerod "earl-troop", dryht "host of proven warriors, comitatus, troop of retainers", egnas "thanes, comitatus", werod "comitatus", fletwerod "hall-troop", aelingas "(troop of) noblemen", heorgenatas "hearth-companions, comitatus", healsittende "hall-sitters, comitatus", od "folk, men (of the nation)", lode "folk, people, men", egnscolu "troop of retainers", herefolc "war-band, troops", hererat "war-host", heorwerod "hearth-troop", egnwerod "troop of retainers", fierdgetrum "war-band", eldugu "noble troop, retinue", lodweras "nation's men, men on active service", lindwerod "shield-troop", schere "ship-army", wlhere "murderous army", dryhtfolc "troop of chosen men", dryhtweras "troop of chosen men", folcgesas "companions, members of the royal troop", folcgetrum "folk-troop", grat "war-throng", senrat "armed troop", senhere "armed host".

OS: heri "army, troop", heriskepi "host, troop", folk "host, troop, men", gi-trost "comitatus, Gefolgsmenn", megin-folk "main-folk, army, host", werod "proven troop of warriors", druht-folk "host, throng", heru-thrum "sword-troop, army of warriors", megin "throng, host", megin-kraft "throng, host", gi-sili "host, troop, entourage".

 

h) Woman, Girl

ON: ds "goddess, maid; princess", flj "woman", feima "girl", kona "woman, wife", kvn "wife", mr "girl, maiden", vf "wife, woman", genta "girl", menskgul "valkyrie, woman", hrgefn "goddess of the flesh", hringskgul "sword-valkyrie, woman", vngefn "goddess of wine, woman", gulls eik "gold or jewellery of the oak, woman", mj-nanna "mead-woman, woman", hringa sl "sun of rings, woman", gulls sl "sun of gold, woman", stlka "girl, lass", vr "woman", psa "woman, wife", freyja "lady".

OE: cwn "queen, woman", mg "woman, kinswoman", wf "woman, wife", wfmann "woman, wife", mge "kinswoman", mden "maid, girl", mg "maiden, young woman", mgdencild "girl".

OS: quena "lady, woman", wf "wife, woman", maga "girl, maiden; woman", qan "wife".

 

i) Son, Inheritor

ON: arfi "inheritor", arfegi "inheritor", erfingi "inheritor", erfivrr "guardian of inheritance, son", barn "child", nir "son, relative", sonr "son", hefnir "avenger, son", hefnandi "avenger, son", askr ttar "tree of the kin, son, descendant", ttnijungr "descendant", arfnyti "user of inheritance, son, inheritor", arftakari "taker of inheritance, son", arfvrr "guardian of inheritance, son", arftkumar "taker of an inheritance, inheritor", mgr "son".

OE: bearn "child", eafora "inheritor", magu "son", sunu "son", ierfenuma "inheritance-taker, heir", ierfeweard "guardian of the inheritance, heir".

OS: sunu "son", magu "son, youth", barn "child, son", eriward "guardian of inheritance, son".

 

j) Servant, Steward, Retainer, Retainers

ON: hjn "servant", sveinar "servant", bekkrekkr "retainer, steward", jnn "thrall, servant", jnanarmar "servant", salkona "female servant, slave", jnustumar "servant", jnustukona "female servant", jnustumr "serving wench", jnustusveinn "boy servant", erna "maid servant", drttsetti "high-steward", saldrtt "hall-folk, retainers", salj "hall-people, retainers", heimmar "home-man, servant", fylg "retainers, servants, retinue", fylgarmar "retainer", hirmar "member of the household, retainer", hirmr "maidservant", hirflk "retainers", hir "servants, household staff", "bondwoman, female slave", ambtt "serving wench, female retainer".

OE: ow "servant, slave", selesceg "hall-man, retainer", scealc "servant", egn "retainer", egnhyse "retainer", owling "slave", owa "servant, slave", owen "female slave", egnungmann "servant, retainer", geongra "servant", healegn "hall-retainer", selesecg "hall-steward", seleegn "chamberlain", magoegn "young retainer", owling "slave", egnyse "attendant", egnscipe "retainers", heorgenatas "hearth-companions, retainers", heorcniht "hearth-knight, retainer", heorcnihtas "retainers", seleweard "hall-ward, steward", dryhtguma "retainer; warrior", hagosteald "servant, youth, warrior", wealh "slave, serf, Welshman", cnapa "servant", ambeht "servant", ambehtmecg "servant, retainer", ambehtscealc "servant, retainer", ambehtegn "servant, retainer", cniht "retainer, servant", hred "body of retainers, retinue, household".

OS: thiorna "maid servant", thiu "maid", thiwa "female servant", hagastald "servant", skalk "servant", thionostman "servant, retainer", druhting "retainer, follower", ambahtman "servant".

 

k) Poet, Singer

ON: skld "poet, court-poet", skldmar "poet", skldkona "poetess", skldffl "poetaster", skldmr "poetess", fltir "deliverer of songs, poet", mringr "court-poet".

OE: sangere "singer", scop "poet", gloman "glee-man, poet, minstel", hleahtorsmi "laughter-smith, poet", wbora "song-bearer, poet, minstrel", sangestre "singer", lowyrhta "song-smith, poet".

 

l) Body

ON: lk "body; corpse", lkamr "body", kroppr "body".

OE: lc "body", lchama (cf. Dutch lichaam), bncofa "bone-chamber, body", bnft "bone-vessel, body", bnhs "bone-house, body", bnloca "bone-fortress, body", gstes hs "housing of the spirit, body", swolhs "housing of the soul, body", feorhbold "life-house, body", feorhhs "life-house, body", lcft "bodily vessel", swolhord "soul-hoard, body", bnsele "bone-hall, body", feorhbold "life-dwelling, body".

OS: lk "body, corpse", lkhamo "body".

 

m) Breast, Chest, Heart

ON: brjst "breast", hugborg "stronghold of the heart, chest", borg "stronghold of the feeling, chest", hugtn "homestead of the heart, chest", munvangr "plain of the spirit, chest", hyggjustar "dwelling of the thoughts, mind", minnisknrr "ship of the memory, chest", minnisv "house of the memory, chest", viljabyrgi "enclosure of the will, chest", hjarta "heart", makarn "mood-acorn, heart", fjrsegi "life-muscle, heart", hugsteinn "stone of consciousness, heart", hs hugar "house of the spirit, heart", jr hugar "realm of the spirit, heart", gesteinn "stone of the reason, heart", hnot brjsts "nut of the breast, heart", epli hugar "apple of the spirit, heart", hugarskip "ship of the spirit, heart", hugstrnd "shore of the heart, chest", hugar korn "corn of the spirit, heart", mfjall "mood-hill, breast", geknr "ship of the reason, breast", gevangr "plain of the reason, breast", lfs hll "the hall of life, breast", fjrbraut "life-road, breast", fjrrann "the hall of life, breast".

OE: brost "breast", hreer "heart", gewitloca "locker of the mind, heart", ferhloca "spirit-enclosure, chest", rncofa "coffer of secrets, heart, mind", feorhhord "treasury of life, soul", heorte "heart", md "heart", sefa "heart, mind", mdgeonc "heart, mind", mdsefa "heart", feorhloca "life-locker, breast", gstcofa "coffer of the spirit, breast", brostcofa "coffer of the breast, heart", brosthord "treasury of the breast, heart".

OS: briost "breast, chest", briosthugi "heart, mind", herta "heart", seo "heart, mind", md "heart, mind", mdgithht "thought, heart", mdseo "heart, mind".

 

n) Arm

ON: armr "arm", ln "forearm", ermvangr "the sleeve's plain, forearm", vir axla "tree of the shoulders, arm", baugvangr "plain of armlets, forearm", handleggr "leg of the hand, arm", hnd "arm and hand".

OE: earm "arm".

OS: arm "arm".

 

o) Head

ON: hfu "head", hera klettr "rock of the shoulders, head", hjlmstofn "helmet-stem, head", borg heila "stronghold of the brain, skull", land hrs "land of the hair, head", brvllr "plain of the brow, forehead", hjlmsetr "the helmet's residence, head".

OE: hafela "head", heafod "head".

OS: hid "head".

 

p) Ear(s), Mouth, Teeth, Tounge

ON: eyru "ears", hlertjld "tents of listening, ears", hlust "ear", heyrnar skjldr "shield of hearing, ear", munnr "mouth", hs tungu "house of the tongue, mouth", skip ora "ship of words, mouth", orhof "temple of words, mouth", rddklief "cliff of the voice, mouth", bragartn "homestead of poetry, mouth", tnn "tooth", sker munns "skerries of the mouth, teeth", grjt munns "stones of the mouth, teeth", tunga "tounge", mlorn "thorn of speech, tongue", ar r "river of poems, tongue".

OE: aran "ears"; m "mouth", t "teeth", tunge "tongue".

OS: m "mouth", tunga "tongue", ra "ear".

 

q) Beard

ON: skegg "beard", kinnskgr "forest of the cheeks, beard".

OE: beard "beard".

 

r) Eye, Eyes

ON: auga "eye", ennimni "moon of the forehead, eye", ennitungl "luminary of the forehead, eye", brmni "moon of the brow, eye", brtungl "moon of the brow, eye", ljs br "light of the brow, eye", hvarma skjldr "shield of the eyelids, eye",

OE: age "eye", hafodgim "gem of the head, eye", hofodes sigel "sun of the head, eye", heafodsen "head-vision, eye".

OS: ga "eye".

 

s) Tears

ON: tr "tear", harmdgg "dew of sorrow", brdgg "dew of the brow", kinna l "rain of the cheeks", augna l "rain of the eyes", brregn "rain of the brow", dropar augna "drops of the eyes".

OE: tar "tear", hlordropa "drop of the cheeks, tear", wgdropa "wave-drop, tear", wpdropa "lamentation-drop, tear", wpeshring "ring of weeping, tear".

  

 

                2) Objects and Abstract

 

a) Fire

ON: eldr "fire", funi "flame", frr "fire", logi "flame", freki "the greedy one, fire", hripur "the quick, fire", forbrennir "burner", herr alls viar "lord of all wood, fire", lindar bani "lind-wood's bane, fire", sviga lvi "destroyer of boughs, fire", aldrnari "preserver of life, fire", fasti "fire", hyrr "fire", geiri "fire", foldar vargr "wolf of the earth, fire", gis brir "brother of gir, fire".

 

OE: bl "fire, pyre", brond "fire", bryne "fire", fr "fire, flame", lg "flame", lgbryne "fire", lgfr "fire, flame", led "fire".

OS: fiur "fire", lgna "flame", ld "fire".

 

b) Riches, Gold, Treasure, Silver

ON: aur "riches", auigleikar "riches, treasures", augleg "riches, wealth", eyrir "coinage", eign "property", f "money, property", gull "gold", gullaur "riches in gold", hnoss "valuable", hodd "treasure", meimar "treasure", aurglasir "sheen of water, gold treasure", lindar logi "spring of flame, gold treasure", Rnar mlmr "metal of the Rhine, gold", ormber "dragon's bed, gold-hoard", eldr ormbes "fiery bed of the dragon, gold-hoard", linnvengi "serpent's plain, gold", haddr Sifjar "Sif's hair, silver", Ffnis dna "Ffnir's bed, silver", silfr "silver", fnn arms "snow of the arm, silver bracelet", au-fi "riches", lifasti "fire of the hall-thanes, gold", libl "fire of the hall-thanes, gold", librandr "firebrand of the hall-thanes, gold", ormbekkr "bench of the dragon, gold-hoard", ormbl "couch of the dragon, gold-hoard", ormland "land of the dragon, gold-hoard", ormreitr "domain of the dragon, gold-hoard", ormsetr "residence of the dragon, gold-hoard", ormtorg "square of the dragon, gold-hoard", ormvangr "the dragon's plain, gold-hoard", gis sl "the sun of gir, gold", gis bl "the fire of gir, gold", gis mni "the moon of gir, gold", jtna-ml "inlaid ornaments of the giants, gold", jtna-rmr "voice of the giants, gold", jtna-sngr "lay of the giants, gold", hafljmi "gleam of the ocean, gold", haflogi "flame of the ocean, gold", hafrull "radiance of the ocean, gold", rkdmr "riches", freyju tr "tears of Freya, gold".

OE: gestron "treasure", goldhord "gold-hoard", mm "treasure", frtwa "costly things", mmht "precious thing, treasure", mmhord "treasure-hoard", mmgestron "treasure", mmwela "treasure, riches", sinc "treasure", sincmm "treasure", sincgestron "treasure", goldmm "gold-hoard", firngestron "ancient treasure", wyrmhord "treasure guarded by a dragon", eorlgestron "noble treasure", dryhtgestron "noble treasure", dryhtmm "noble treasure", folcgestron "public treasure", baghord "ring-hoard, treasure", goldht "wealth in gold, riches", goldfrtwe "gold ornaments", gold "gold", hordmm "treasure hoard", hordgestron "hoard of treasure", ad "wealth", adwela "riches, wealth", htgestron "riches, treasure", htwela "wealth", wela "wealth, riches, prosperity", hord "treasure-hoard".

OS: sink "treasure", mom "treasure", momhord "treasure hoard", fratah "treasure, valuable things", goldwelo "wealth in gold", siluar "silver", fehu-skatt "gold, treasure", siluarskat "silver coin", gold "gold", hord "hoard, treasure", welo "wealth, riches".

 

c) House, Hall

ON: b "farm, homestead", hs "house", salr "hall", hll "hall", rann "large house, hall", mjrann "mead-hall".

OE: flr "hall, court", heall "hall", reced "hall", sele "hall", rn "hall, large house", heallrn "hall", heallreced "hall", hm "home", hs "house", medurn "mead-hall", meduheall "mead-hall", borsele "beer-hall", mmsele "treasure-hall", healreced "splendid hall, palace", wnrn "wine-hall", dryhtsele "noble hall", hringsele "ring-hall, hall where rings are distributed", bagsele "ring-hall, hall where rings are distributed", goldsele "gold-hall", gsele "war-hall, hall of warriors", hordrn "treasure-hall", flet "hall, house, dwelling", hof "dwelling, house, farm", eardwc "dwelling".

OS: halla "hall", rukud "dwelling, hall; temple", seli "hall", hm "home, house", hs "house", tresur-hs "treasure hall, treasury", selia "dwelling, house", seli-hs "dwelling, house annexed to a hall", flett "house, room", hof "farm, dwelling; courtyard", gard "dwelling, house".

 

d) Bench:

ON: bekkr "bench", sessmeir "sitting-beam, bench".

OE: benc "bench", scamol "bench", medubenc "mead-bench", medusetl "mead-bench", borsetl "beer-bench", ealobenc "ale-bench".

OS: bank "bench".

 

e) Ale, Beer, Mead

ON: l "ale", ldr "ale", bjr "beer", hreinlgr "the pure liquid, ale", kerstraumr "stream of the goblet, ale", mj "mead", vn "wine".

OE: ealu "ale", eolo "ale", bor "beer", medu "mead", medudrinc "mead", wn "wine".

OS: alo "ale", medu "mead", wn "wine".

 

f) Gallows

ON: galgi "gallows", vargtr "thief's tree, gallows", galgtr "gallows-tree", Sigars jr "Sigar's horse, gallows", meir "tree, beam", glgvir "gallows-tree", hrva Sleipnir "the bowstrings of Sleipnir".

OE: gealga "gallows", gealgatrow "gallows-tree".

OS: galgo "gallows".

 

g) Carrion, the Slain, Corpses

ON: hr "carrion", beita lfs "wolf-bait, carrion", krsir lfs "wolf-delicacies, carrion", barr lfa "food of wolves, carrion", hugins barr "raven's food, carrion", valr "the slain", lk "corpse", nr "corpse".

OE: s "carrion", hrw "carrion, the slain", wl "the slain", wlsleaht "slaughter, corpses", lc "corpse, body".

OS: hro "corpse", wal "the slain, corpses".

 

h) Sickness, Disease

ON: stt "sickness", aldrtregi "life-long sorrow, sickness", sjkleiki "sickness, illness", sjkdmr "sickness, illness", sjknar "sickness, disease".

OE: socness "sickness", leger "illness, disease", dl "disease", broc "disease", brocung "disease", unhlu "un-hale, ill-health", suht "illness".

OS: legar "illness, sickness", suht "illness".

 

i) Sleep, Dreaming

ON: svefn "sleep", drauming "assembly of dreams, sleep", svefnfarir "sleep-journey, dream(ing)", draumr "dream".

OE: rst "rest", slp "sleep", slma "slumber", sweofot "sleep", swefn "dream", mting "dream".

OS: swean "dream", slp "sleep", resta "rest".

 

j) Night, Darkness, Dusk

ON: ntt "night", njl "darkness", grma "night", ljs "un-light", svefngaman "dream-joy", draumnjrun "dream-weaver".

OE: niht "night", dimnes "night, darkness", genip "darkness", heolstor "darkness, concealment", heolstorsceado "the shadow of darkness, night", ostru "darkness", nihthelm "shades of night, cover of darkness", nihtglm "darkness of night", deorcnes "darkness".

OS: naht "night", thiustru "darkness".

 

k) Grave

ON: kumbl "grave-mounument", grf "grave", haugr "burial-mound", grftr "grave, tomb".

OE: grf "gave", hlw "mound", foldrn "earth-chamber, tomb", orgrp "earth-grip", heolstorcofa "chest of darkness, grave", hrsan heolstor "house of darkness, grave", grotes fm "in the grasp of earth", sandhof "sand-dwelling, grave", dareced "death-hall, tomb, grave", moldstw "earth-place, grave", moldrn "earth-hall, grave", moldgrf "earth-grave", foldgrf "earth-hall, grave", byrgen "tomb, grave".

OS: graf "grave", hlo "burial-mound", ergraf "earth-grave", stn-graf "grave in a cliffside".

 

l) Death, (the) Dead, Die, Kill

ON: daui "death", aldrlag "life's-end, death", aldrlok "life's end, death", aldrtili "loss of life, death", fjrlag "life's end, death", andlt "cessation of breathing, death", bana "slay", deya "kill", drepa "kill", sl "kill, slay, strike", vega "kill", nema aldri "deprive of life, kill", nema fjrvi "deprive of life, kill", rja sver "redden one's sword, kill", rja mki "redden one's sword, kill", rja jrn "redden one's iron (i.e. weapon), kill", deyja "die", svelta "die", andask "breathe one's last, die", sofa "sleep, die", ganga til heljar "go to Hel, die", helveg troa "tread the path to Hel, die", til moldar hnga "sink to the earth, die", leggja aldr "give up one's life, die", lka aldri "bring one's life to an end, die", hverfa af lfi "vanish from life, die", vera nr "become a corpse, die", fjrlstr "life-fault, death", fjrbann "life-divorce, death", banadagr "death-day", aldrslit "life-breach, death", daustund "hour of death", bani "death, bane", daudagr "day of one's death", aldrlauss "life-less, dead", fjrlt "hindering of life, death", fjrrn "robbery of life, death", fjrspell "life-flaw, harm to life, death".

OE: da "death", cwealm "death", swylt "death", fors "journey forth, death", forweg "journey forth, death", hingang "departure, death", feorhgedl "separation from life, death", lfgedl "separation from life, death", ealdorgedl "separation from life, death", feorhbealu "life-injury, death", ealdorbealu "life-injury, death", cwalu "death", forfr "departure, journeying forth", unlf "un-life", swyltcwalu "violent death", swyltda "death", mor "death, murder", gstgedl "separation from spirit, death", sweltan "die", cwelan "die", gewtan "depart", heonan gangan "go from hence, die", worold ofgifan "leave the world, die", lf ofltan "depart from life, die", feorh lecgan "give up one's life, die", feorh gesellan "give up one's spirit, die", swolgedl "separation from spirit, death", wlcwealm "violent death", wlda "violent death", gda "death in battle", ncwealm "violent death, murderous end", dacwalu "slaughter, death", dagedl "death, passing away", feorhcwalu "quelling of life, death", feorh aletan "give up one's life, die", heonongang "going hence, death", nedfaru "enforced journey, death", diegan "die".

OS: d "death", forweg "journey forth, death", forgang "journey forth, death", hinfard "journey hence, death", aslpan "sleep" (i.e. pass away), ferah farltan "give up one's life, die", lf ageban "give up one's life, die", hinan hwerban "go hence, die", faran "travel, depart", dag endion "end the day(s), die", thit lioht afgeban "renounce the light, die", orlag-hwla "fated hour, time of death", quelan "suffer a violent death, die", quellian "kill", quelmian "kill", slahan "kill, slay", wal-d "murder, violent death", bano "murder, violent killing", ferah-quala "violent death", dd "dead", ddan dn "kill, slay", sweltan "die, perish", dian "die", qualm "violent death, murder", wtnon "punish, kill".

 

m) (to) Travel, Go, Depart

ON: ganga "walk, go", la "travel, glide", fara "go, fare", stefna "to travel in a certain direction".

OE: gangan "walk, go", gewtan "depart", lan "travel", faran "fare", fran "fare", steppan "step, tread", gehweorfan "go, depart; turn", sian "travel, depart", wadan "wade, step", wendan "turn, go".

OS: gangan "walk, go", giwtan "depart", lan "travel", faran "fare, go", stapan "step, tread", son "go", hwerian "walk, go; turn", wendian "turn".

 

n) (to) Speak

ON: segja "say, speak", kvea "say, speak", mla "speak, say", tala "speak, talk", ra "speak".

OE: cwean "say", sprecan "speak", secgan "say", reordian "use one's voice, speak", maelian "make a sound, make a speech, utter words", giddian "utter words", wordhord onlcan "unlock one's store of words, speak", ltan word tfaran "express in words", wordlocan onspannan "open up one's word-hoard, speak", gemlan "speak".

OS: sprekan "speak", seggian "say", quean "speak, say", queddian "speak to, address", mahlian "speak, talk".

 

        3) Weapons and Warfare

 

a) War, Strife, Battle

ON: b "battle", hildr "battle", orrosta "battle", rma "battle", str "strife, war", vg "war", naddl "shower of arrows", eggleikr "edge-play, battle", hjrleikr "sword-play, battle", hjring "assembly of swords, battle", bryning "assembly of mailshirts, battle", dlga dynr "clash of hostilities, battle", Hugins jl "feast of Huginn (one of Odin's ravens), battle", Freys leikr "the sport of Frey, battle", sverleikr or sveraleikr "sword-play, battle", gunnr "war", orrostaslag "battle", hjrgr "sword-greed, battle", hildarleikar "war-playing, battle", flkbardagi "folk-battle, great battle", flkorrosta "large battle", geirruful "spear-fumbling, battle", h "war, strife", geirah "spear-strife, war", valstefna "slaughter-meeting, battle", hjrstefna "meeting of swords, battle", geirriful "war" (a valkyrie name), skgul "war, battle" (a valkyrie name), skglar verk "work of the valkyries, war", skglar sngur "lay of the valkyries, battle", valfasta ver "wind of swords, battle", vgafar "war-journey, strife", flk "battle" (in kennings especially), flkvg "great battle", vpnabrak "clash of arms, battle", vpnamt "meeting of weapons, battle", vpnastefna "meeting of weapons, battle", vpnaing "assembly of weapons, battle", vpnasamankvma "meeting of weapons, battle", vpnasngr "lay of clashing arms, battle", dlg "direful emnity, war", valing "slaughter-meeting, battle", hjrdynr "clash of swords, battle", hjrdrfa "clattering of swords, battle", hjrgaldr "the singing of swords, battle", hjrgll "clashing of edges, battle", hjrrdd "voice of swords" (i.e. the sound of battle), hjreyr "sword-gust, storm of swords, battle", hjrr "sword-defiance, opposition with swords, battle", vgeyr "slaying-gust, storm of slaughter, battle", hringskr "shower of swords, battle", herstefna "war-assembly, battle", hervg "battle", vpneir "weapon-protection (lit. "cursing"), battle", vpnglymr "clatter of arms, battle", vpnhr "storm of arms, battle", vpnrima "clash of arms, battle", vpnruma "thunderous clashing of arms, battle", jrnleikr "iron-play, battle", jrnrdd "iron-voice, the ringing out of iron weapons, battle", jrnsveimr "iron-tumult, the clash of iron weapons, battle", gunnl "war-shower, the raining down of missiles in battle", gunning "war-assembly, battle", ins ver "Odin's weather, battle", egghr "storm of edges, battle", eggmt "meeting of edges, battle", eggro "reddener of edges, battle", eggtog "the pulling of edges, battle", egging "meeting of edges, battle", sverl or sveral "sword-shower, battle", sverahr "sword-storm, battle", sverarng "throng of swords, battle", sverdynr "the din of swords, battle", sverregn "sword-rain, the raining down of edges", svertog "the pulling of swords, battle", svering "meeting of swords, battle", geirhr "storm of spears, battle", geirleikr "spear-play, battle", geirver "spear-weather, battle", geireyr "spear-gust, storm of spears, battle", geiring "assembly of spears, battle", hjlmdrifa "bearer of a helmet, warrior", hjlmrdd "voice of helmets, battle", hjlmruma "thunderous clashing of helmets, battle", skjaldar l "storm of shields, battle", skjaldar gnr "clashing of shields, battle", skjaldbrak "crash of shields, battle", skjaldver "shield-weather, battle", benregn "wound-rain" or "rain of weapons, battle", benrgn "wound-rain" or "rain of weapons, battle", spjta jag "harping on spears, battle", spjta dynr "din of spears, battle", jara "battle", flkjara "great battle", sig "battle", sigrleikr "victory-play, battle", styrjld "war", bardagi "battle", Jalfas l "snowstorm of Odin, battle".

OE: g "war", hild "war", wg "war", gewinn "strife", geslieht "slaying", gefeoht "battle", camp "war", n "hostility", beado "war", orlege "war", ecgplega "edge-play, battle", scplega "spear-play, battle", ecga gelc "sword-play, battle", sweordplega "sword-play, battle", sweorda gelc "sword-play, battle", lindplega "shield-play, battle", wpenracu "clashing of arms, battle", scracu "clashing of spear-shafts, battle", handgemt "hand-to-hand engagement", wlrs "rush of slaughter", cumbolgehnst "crash of banners, battle", wpngewrxl "exchange of weapons, battle", borda gebrc "clashing of shields, battle", billa brga "terror of swords", ecghete "edge-hate, war", heaowigrden "war", lc "battle", wgrden "war", gplega "war-play, battle", ggewinn "war-strife, battle", beadulc "battle-play", wgplega "war-play, battle", grgewinn "spear-strife, battle", wgracu "war-violence, battle", ret "war", hilderacu "battle-violence", heaolc "war-play, battle", campwg "war", secgplega "warrior-play, battle", ecgracu "clashing of swords, battle", grrs "flurry of spears, spear-rush", lodgewinn "folk-strife", wgbealo "war", wln "violence, war", lindgelc "shield-play, battle", beadurs "onslaught, rush of battle", camprden "war, state of war", wln "murderous emnity, edge-hatred", folcgewinn "great strife, national strife", hilders "onslaught, rush of battle", hildescr "shower of missiles", wpengewrixle "exchange of weapons, engagement", wpenhete "weapon-hate, war", wpenracu "clashing of weapons, engagement", ggemt "war-meeting, battle", gracu "violence, clashing in battle", grs "onslaught, rush of battle", bilhete "sword-hate, war", bilgeslyht "sword-slaughter", secgplega "sword-play, battle", nplega "playing out of hostilities, battle", ecgwl "edge-slaughter, battle", sweordloma "flashing of swords, battle", sweordrs "sword-rush, onslaught, battle", grcwealm "spear-slaughter", grn "spear-emnity, battle", grracu "clashing of spears, battle", scyldhete "shield-hate, battle".

OS: fehta "war, strife", hild "war", orlag "war", strd "strife, war", urlagi "war", wg "war", giwin "strife", gth "war", wpno spil "weapon-play, battle", wpno n "emnity of weapons", grheti "spear-hate, war", wgsaka "strife, emnity", n-skepi "emnity, strife", hildia "battle", gia "battle, war", n "emnity".

 

b) War-gear, Armour, Mailshirt, Helmet

ON: brynja "mailshirt", hringskyrta "ring-shirt", bserkr "war-shirt, corslet", hringserkr "ring-shirt, corslet", hjlmr "helmet", jfurr "boar (hemlet)", hildigltr "war-boar, boar-helmet", hildisvn "boar-helmet", fjrnir "life-defender, helmet", herbnar "war-gear", herklnar "battle-dress, corslet", herfri "war-gear", herskapsbnar "war-gear", blsungr "blood head-cloth, helmet", valhrmnir "slaughter-boar, boar-helmet", valgltr "slaughter-boar, boar-helmet", flkvpn "arms, weapons", herneskja "armour", herskaparfri "implement of war, weapon", herkli "battle-dress, armour", hervpn "arms, weapons", vpnft "weapon-garb, armour", vpnabnar "war-gear, arms", brynstakkr "mailshirt", hringa-brynja "ring-mail shirt", hildigrma "battle-mask, helmet", bkufl "battle-cowl, corslet", sigtl "implement of war, weapon", hervo "battle-cloth, mailshirt".

OE: wggetwe "war-gear", heregeatu "war-gear", gsearo "battle-armour", ggetma "war-gear", ggeatwe "war-gear, armour", fierdgeatwe "levy-gear, arms", byrne "mailshirt", sierce "sark, mailshirt", searo "armour", herepd "war-cloak, corslet", heresceorp "war-dress, armour", herewde "war-dress, armour", beaduhrgl "war-dress, corslet", beaduscrd "war-shroud, corslet", fierdhrgl "levy-dress, corslet", heaowde "battle-dress, corslet", haoraf "battle-dress, armour", hildegeatwe "war-gear", herenett "mailshirt", hringnett "mailshirt", brostnet "mailshirt", brostgewde "corslet", hringloca "mailshirt", raf "armour", heresierce "war-sark, corslet", heaobyrne "war-corslet", gbyrne "war-corslet", gra "battle-armour", herebyrne "war-corselt", byrnhm "mailshirt home", renbyrne "iron mailshirt", fierdsearo "levy-armour", beadusearo "battle-armour", helm "helmet", beadugrma "battle-mask, helmet", heregrma "battle-mask, helmet", wgheafola "war-head, helmet", ghelm "battle-helmet", grma "mask, helmet", heaohelm "battle-helmet", grmhelm "visored helmet", heafodsegn "head-banner, helmet", heafodborg "head-protection, helmet", fierdhm "corslet", fierdsceorp "levy-dress, armour", wghyrsta "war-gear", beadusierce "battle-sark, corslet", beaduwpen "arm, weapon, implement of war", campwpen "arm, weapon, implement of war", heoru sierce "sword-sark, corslet", hildesierce "battle-sark, corslet", hildesceorp "battle-dress, armour", ggewde "war-gear, armour", gscrd "battle-shroud, corslet", senbyrne "steel corslet", hildewpen "arm, weapon, implement of war", heorusceorp "sword-dress, armour, corslet".

OS: helm "helmet", grmo "mask, helmet", sarrok "wound-shirt, corslet", giwpni "war-gear".

 

c) Shield

ON: skjldr "shield", lind "lind-wood shield", rnd "roundel, shield", gunnbor "war-board, shield", geirvangr "spear-plain, shield", land fleina "plain of spears, shield", geirnet "spear-net, shield", hlbarr "shelter-rim, shield", hlf "protection, cover, shield", skgulbor "war-board, shield", herskjldr "war-shield", valgrind "slaughter-fence, shield", valbrik "slaughter-board, shield", vgblkr "war-baulk, shield", vggarr "war-fence, shield", vgsk "war-cloud, shield", vgtjald "war-tent, shield", flkstafn "battle-stem, shield", flkstjald "tent of battle, shield", hringa Ullar "rings of Ull", hergarr "war-fence, shield", gunnhrgr "battle-cairn, shield", gunnmni "battle-moon, shield", hrmni "carrion-moon, shield", hrstor "carrion-wood, shield", bmni "battle-moon, shield", bsk "battle-cloud, shield", geirbrik "spear-board, shield", geirfit "spear-paddle, shield", bori "shield", vga sk "cloud of battles, shield", hildar sk "cloud of battles, shield", oddsk "spear-cloud, shield", sigmni "victory-moon, shield", sigrbor "victory-board, shield", hjrvangr "plain of swords, shield", hjrilja "sword-plank, shield", skr "shield".

OE: scield "shield", lind "lind-wood shield", bord "board, shield", rand "roundel, shield", heaolind "war lind-wood, shield", hilderand "battle-roundel, shield", bnhelm "bone-protector, shield", hildefrfor "war-comfort, shield", lindwudu "lind-wood, shield", bordwudu "board-wood, shield", hildebord "battle-board, shield", campwudu "battle-wood, shield", gbord "war-board, shield", wgbord "war-board, shield", bordrand "roundel-board, shield".

OS: skild "shield", bord "shield".

 

d) Sword, Spear, Axe, Arrow

ON: hjrr "sword", mkir "sword", sver "sword", narr "sword", logi "sword" (lit. "flame"), nar "adder, snake" (i.e. sword), brimir "sword", unnr "sword" (lit. "wave"), egg "edge, sword", benlogi "wound-flame, sword", blormr "blood-snake, sword", srvndr "wand of wounds, sword", rgorn "war-thorn, sword", beneldr "wound-flame, sword", sreldr "wound-flame, sword", dverga smi "work of the dwarves, sword", skijrn "sheath-iron, sword", valteinn "slaughter-stick, sword", gunnlogi "flame of war, sword", beneldi "wound-flame, sword", benstrr "wound-sedge, sword", benvndr "wound-wand, sword", hirir "that which goes hard, sword", dlgr "war-oar, sword or spear", hr-frakki "carrion-point, sword", vitnir "wolf, sword", geirr "spear", spjt "spear", frakka "spear", darr "spear, dart", darrar "spear, dart", askr "ash-spear", sraorn "wound-thorn, spear", bengeirr "wound-spear", naddr "point, spear", svf "spear", sax-knfr "dagger", valfasti "fire of slaughter, sword", vgvlr "battle-stick, sword or spear", herr "war-arrow", brynju-btr "mail-biter, sword", bryn-knfr "mail-knife, dagger", valnar "slaughter-adder, sword", valsk "weapon of slaughter, sword", bls "freezer or congealer of the blood, sword", blvndr "blood-wand, sword", vgeldr "flame of war, sword", vgleiftr "flash of battle, sword", vgnar "war-adder, sword", rimarr "sword", hildarvndr "wand of battle, sword", dlglmr "battle-limb, sword", jrnsveins hyrr "sword", gunnblik "gleam of battle, sword", gunneldr "flame of battle, sword", gunnsproti "war-stick, spear", hrgagarr "dog of carrion, sword, spear", hrkyndill "candle of carrion, sword, spear", hrleiftr "torch of carrion, sword, spear", hrlinnr "serpent of carrion, sword, spear", hrnar "adder of carrion, sword, spear", hrsk "weapon of carrion, sword, spear", fjrsvfnir "that which puts life to sleep, sword", bryngl "corslet-embers, sword", brynja vndr "wand of mailshirts, sword", hjlmangr "distress of helmets, sword", hjlmeldr "helm-fire, sword", hjlmgrand "harm of helmets, sword", hjlmrull "helmet-sun, sword" (meaning appears to be obscure), hjlmsproti "helm-stick, sword", skjaldar leygr "flame of shields, sword", skjaldreyr "shield-snake, that which burrows into shields, sword", benlinnr "wound-serpent, sword", benmni "wound-moon (i.e. that which gleams and wounds?), sword", bensl "wound-sun, sword", benteinn "wound-stick, sword", srsl "wound cart-pole, sword, spear", srs "freezer or congealer of wound blood, sword", srklungr "wound-bramble, sword", srlax "wound-salmon, sword", srlmr "wound-limb, sword", srlogi "wound-flame, sword", srteinn "wound-stick, sword", srviti "wound-beacon, sword", undavndr "wand of wounds, sword", undfleinn "wound-shaft, sword", undgl "wound-embers, sword", undleggr "wound-leg, sword", undlmr "wound-limb, sword", undsk "wound-ski, sword", dlgr "battle-oar, spear", brynflag "ogress of the mailshirt, battle-axe", bryngagl "corslet-goose, arrow", bensld "wound-herring, spear, arrow", bengrr "giantess of wounding, battle-axe", srgagl "wound-goose, arrow, spear", undvargr "wound-wolf, battle-axe", vigr "spear", r "arrow", spjr "spear", bara "axe", fleinn "arrow, dart", vgglr "axe", skjaldlinnr "shield-snake, that which burrows into shields, sword", veigarr "sword".

OE: sweord "sword", bill "sword", heoro "sword", mce "sword", ecg "edge, sword", ren "iron, sword", lf hamera "the legacy of hammers, sword", lf fla "the legacy of files, sword", handweorc smia "work of smiths, sword", beaduloma "light of war, sword", hildeloma "light of war, sword", gwine "war-friend, sword", hildebill "battle-sword", beadumce "war-sword", gbill "war-sword", gsweord "war-sword", wgbill "war-sword", secg "sword", gr "spear", spere "spear", daro "spear, dart", pl "spear, javelin", fln "spear, dart", strl "arrow", ord "point, spear", sc "ash-spear", scholt "ash-wood spear", heresceaft "war-shaft, spear", wlsceaft "slaughter-shaft, spear", wlsteng "slaughter-stick, spear", gwudu "war-wood, spear, javelin", campwudu "war-wood, spear", hildendre "war-snake, arrow", franca "javelin", wgspere "battle-spear", wlspere "slaughter-spear", mgenwudu "wood of might, spear", wlgr "slaughter-spear", wggr "war-spear", grholt "spear", grwudu "spear", wlseax "deadly dagger", wlpl "deadly arrow", hildemce "war-sword", hildepl "battle-arrow", gfln "battle-spear, javelin, arrow", bangr "bane-spear, deadly shaft", earh and earg "arrow".

OS: swerd "sword", bil "sword", mki "sword", eggja "edge, sword", sarn "iron, sword", gr "spear", skaft "shaft, spear", heru- "sword" (in compounds).

 

e) Wound, Blood

ON: ben "wound", sr "sore", und "wound", dlgspor "war-mark, wound", bl "blood", dreyri "gore", hlaut "blood", rora "the red, blood", sveiti "sweat, blood", valdgg "corpse-dew, blood", srdropi "wound-drop, blood", fleina fl "arrows' flood, blood", mkis straumr "stream of the sword, blood", mkis "river of the sword, blood", hrsr "corpse-sea, blood", Hugins vrr "sea of Huginn, blood", Hugins drekka "drink of Huginn, blood", oddl "spear-water, blood", hjrlgr "sword-water, blood", valbl "blood of the slain", bldrif "flowing of blood", blfors "gush of blood" (fors = "waterfall"), blbogi "gush of blood", vpnabit "the bite of weapons, wound", vpnastar "weapon-mark, wound", banasr "fatal wound", srlgr "wound-water, blood", daudreyri "deadly wounding, gore", valbjr "slaughter-beer, blood", valdreyri "gore of the slain", hjrregn "sword-rain, blood", vpnboi "billow of weapons, blood", vpndgg "weapon-dew, blood", vpnrst "weapon-stream, blood", hrdgg "corpse-dew, blood", hrfl "corpse-flood, blood", hrlkr "corpse-brook, blood", eggjaspor "mark of edges, wound", benfoss "wound-waterfall, blood", bensnr "wound-snow, blood", benjalgr "water of wounds, blood", srfl "wound-flood, blood", undasveiti "sweat of wounds, blood", undbra "wound-wave, blood", undlgr "wound-water, blood", lfvn "wine of wolves, blood", hrafnvn "wine of ravens, blood".

OE: benn "wound", dolh "wound", wund "wound", sr "sore, wound", bilswau "sword-mark, wound", sweordes bite "sword-bite, wound", billes bite "sword-bite, wound", wlbenn "dire wound", bld "blood", dror "gore", heolfor "gore", swt "sweat, blood", heaoswt "war-sweat, blood", heorodrync "drink of swords, blood", dolgbenn "dire wound", srbenn "dire wound", wundel "wound", wldror "deadly gore, blood", heorudolg "sword-wound", heorudror "sword-gore, blood", dolgwund "dire wound", hildeswt "battle-sweat, blood", feorhbenn "fatal wound", feorhdolg "fatal wound", feorhwund "fatal wound", sweordwund "sword-wound".

OS: wunda "wound", thes billes biti "sword-bite, wound", beni-wunda "dire wound, fatal wound", lk-wunda "bodily wound", bld "blood", drr "gore, blood", swt "sweat, blood".

 

            4) Sea and Seafaring

 

a) Sea, Wave

ON: brim "surf, sea", haf "sea", marr "mere", sr "sea", vir "sea", gir "sea" (name of the sea-god gir), lheimr "dwelling of eels, sea", land skipa "plain of ships, sea", sfugla land "plain of sea-birds, sea", otrheimr "dwelling of otters, sea", land Rnar "Rn's country, ocean", mis bld "mir's blood, sea, ocean", sund "sound", alda "wave", unnr and ur "wave", breki "breaker", mrfjall "flood-mountain, wave", gis dttir "daughter of gir, wave", Rnar dttir "daughter of Rnir, wave", sjvarbylja "sea-wave", bylja "wave, billow", bra "wave, billow", hafbra "sea-wave", hafsmegin "high sea, ocean", borgrund "land of boards (i.e. ships), the sea", borvllr "plain of boards (i.e. ships), sea", lgr "sea, water", foldar hringar "the plains of rings (i.e. waves), sea", Leifa land "land of Leifi (a sea-king), the ocean", Leifnis grund "plain of Leifnir (a sea-king), the ocean", brimlei "way of the surf, sea", gisjr "sea of gir, the ocean", gisheimr "dwelling of gir, the ocean", kjlsl "keel-trail, the sea", hafalda "sea-wave, billow", jtundreyri "giant's blood, the ocean", vgr "wave".

OE: brim "sea, flood", flot "float, sea", grsecg "spear-man (a reference to Neptune), ocean", hf "sea", holm "flood, sea", mere "mere", s "sea", sund "sound, flood", hwles el "whale's homeland, sea", mwes el "seagull's homeland, sea", ffelstram "sea-monster's channel, sea, flood", ganotes b "gannet's bath, sea", fisces b "fish's bath, sea", bweg "bath-way, sea", hranrd "whale's road, sea", swanrd "swan's road, sea", seglrd "path of sails, ocean", egeld "path of waves, sea", a ful "vessel of waves, sea", wges wielm "the wave's surging, sea", fldes wielm "surging of the flood, sea", a gelc "play of waves, sea", sealtstramas "salt-streams, waves", wylm "surging, boiling, flood", geofon "ocean, flood", lagu "sea, flood", merefld "sea-flood", seolhb "seal's bath, sea", hahs "high-sea", sholm "sea", sweg "sea", brimfld "sea-flood", brimrd "path of the sea", flotweg "sea", lagufld "sea-flood", lagustram "sea-streams", wgholm "wave-flood, sea", sfld "sea-flood", mere "wave-mere", geofonfld "ocean-flood", "wave", firnstramas "the ancient streams, the ocean", s "sea-wave, billow", swg "sea-wave, billow", holmweall "sea-wall, wave", holmmgen "flood-main, ocean", wgrat "wave-throng, flood", mere "wave-mere, sea", hwlmere "whale's mere, sea", hwlweg "the whale's way, sea", windgeard "the wind's enclosure, ocean", sweall "sea-wall, wave", swang "plain of the sea, ocean", lagustrt "sea-road, sea", seolhp "the seal's path, sea", fisces el "the fish's homeland, sea".

OS: fld "flood", mer "mere, sea", s, so "sea", lagu "sea, flood", so-strm "sea-streams", lagu-strm "sea-streams", ia "wave", meristrm "sea-stream", wg "wave; flood", sundia "sound", fluti "river, stream", strm "flood, stream".

 

b) Seaman, Sailor

ON: kjlrennir "keel-runner, sailor", sundvrr "flood-ward, seaman", kjlfari "keel-farer, sailor", sjmar "seaman", sjvkingr "pirate", skipamar "sailor, seaman", skipari "sailor, seaman", siglingamar "sailor".

OE: merefara "mere-traveller, seaman", brimlend "flood-goer, seaman", merelend "mere-goer, seaman", slend "sea-goer, sailor", smann "seaman", srinc "sea-warrior", farorend "water-rider, sailor", sundbend "flood-dweller, seaman", scipfrend "ship-farer, sailor", scipweard "ship-ward, seaman", slida "sea-farer, sailor", scipflota "seafarer", sgenga "sea-goer, sailor", lidmann "ship-man, seaman", scipmann "ship-man, seaman", flotmann "sea-man", flota "sailor", lidweard "ship-ward, sailor", brimgiest "guest of the sea, sailor", brimmann "sea-man, sailor", sundlida "sailor of the sound, seaman", wglend "wave-goer, sailor", wcing "viking, pirate".

OS: lagu-landi "sea-farer, sailor", so-landi "sea-farer, sailor", askman "ash-wood-ship man, sailor", wg-land "one who travels the waves, sea-farer".

 

c) Ship, Boat

ON: btr "boat", beit "boat", fley "swift ship", kjll "keel, ship", knrr "ship", li "ship", skip "ship", far "vessel", eik, eikir, eikja "oak-wood, ship", str "sea-tree, ship", ssk "sea-wood, ship", vgmarr "wave-horse, ship", seglmarr "sail-horse, ship", hestr unnr "horse of the waves, ship", brimdr "flood-beast, ship", brimsvn "flood-swine, ship", rfkr "row-horse, ship", jr gis "gir's steed, ship", btskip "boat", hafskip "ocean-going ship", haffrandi "ocean traverser, ship", svar hlynr "treasure of the sea, ship", langskip "longship, war galley", herskip "war-ship", seglvigg "sail-steed, ship", vgskip "war-ship, galley", borhestr "board-horse, ship", haffaxi "sea-horse, ship", hafraukn "steed of the sea, ship", hafrei "sea-vehicle, ship", hafsk "sea-ski, ship", brimsk "flood-ski, ship", sigluborg "sailing-mound, ship", siglamarr "sail-steed, ship", siglagammr "sail-vulture, ship", nkkvi "boat, ship".

OE: scip "ship", bt "boat", cnear "small ship", col "keel, ship", fr "vessel", flota "floater, ship, vessel", sc "ash-wood, ship", naca "boat, ship", c "oak-wood, ship", brimhengest "flood-horse, ship", merehengest "mere-horse, ship", sundhengest "flood-horse, ship", shengest "sea-horse, ship", farohengest "water-horse, ship", wghengest "horse of the waves, ship", hengest "horse of the waves, ship", lagumearh "flood-horse, ship", smearh "sea-horse, ship", mearh "horse of the waves, ship", sgenga "sea-goer, ship", lia "wave-goer, ship", brimwudu "flood-wood, ship", swudu "sea-wood, ship", sundwudu "flood-wood, ship", ngled bord "nailed board, ship", wgbord "board of the waves, ship", hof "wave-house, ship", merehs "house of the mere, ship", geofonhs "house of the sea, ship", sundreced "flood-hall, ship", wundenstefna "twisted-prow, ship", hringedstefna "ringed-prow, ship", wgel "wave-plank, ship", elfsten "plank-fortress, ship", lid "ship", brimisa "ship", holmrn "sea-hall, ship", flotscip "sea-ship", bord "wave-board, ship", lid "wave-ship", wgflota "wave-ship", naca "wave-boat", colelu "keel-plank, ship", sbt "sea-boat", sflota "sea-floater, ship", snaca "ship", hringnaca "ring-prowed ship", merebt "flood-boat", mereisa "ship", merehs "ark, large ship", holmwudu "flood-wood, ship", wgbora "wave-traverser, ship", lagumearh "horse of the flood, ship".

OS: skip "ship", nako "boat, ship".

 

            5) The Animal Kingdom

 

a) Wolf, Fox

ON: lfr "wolf", vargr "wolf", geri "ravener, the greedy one, wolf" (Geri was one of Odin's two wolves), freki "the greedy one, wolf" (Freki was the other of Odin's two wolves), heiingi "heath dweller, wolf", hreinglkn "rein-troll, wolf", valdr "corpse-beast, wolf", grnst "grey stud, wolf", grar "wolf", hrgfr "corpse-hag, wolf", Viris grey "Odin's dog, wolf", vitnir "wolf", hlbarr "wolf", faxi jrnsxu "horse of the troll-woman, wolf", hergaupr "battle-lynx, wolf", refr "fox", skolli "fox", langstaat "long-tail, fox", grenbi "den-dweller, fox", melrakki "arctic fox", fa "she-fox".

OE: wulf "wolf", wearg "wolf", grghama "grey-coat, wolf", hr hdstapa "hoary heath-stepper, wolf", mearcweard "border-guardian, wolf", freca "wolf", fox "fox.

OS: wulf "wolf".

 

b) Ox, Goat, Hart, Horse

ON: uxi "ox", okhreinn "reindeer of the yoke, ox", okbjrn "yoke-bear, ox", hrir "ox", viggi "ox", griungr "ox", gullinhorni "gold-horn, ox", geit "goat", hafr "he-goat", bukkr "buck", drasill "horse", hestr "horse", hross "horse", jr "steed", marr "mare", viggr and vigg "horse", sudr "saddled-beast, horse", hjrtr reiar "hart of harnesses, horse", faxi "maned one, horse".

OE: hrer "ox", oxa "ox", stor "ox, steer", gt "goat", bucca "he-goat", hfer "he-goat", heorot "hart", hstapa "heath-stepper, hart", bucc "buck, male deer", mearh "mare", wicg "horse", hors "horse", oh "steed", hengest "horse".

OS: gt "goat", wigg "horse", hros "horse", hers "horse".

 

c) Snake, Serpent, Dragon

ON: dreki "serpent, dragon", drkn "dragon", nar and nara "snake", ormr "snake, reptile", yrmlingr "wormling, little snake", lyngfiskr "ling-fish, snake", vifiskr "forest-fish, snake", fiskr foldar "fish of the land, snake", eitrfiskr "venom-fish, poisonous snake", linnormr "serpent", linnr "serpent", lyngl "ling-eel, snake", lynglunn "ling-fish, snake", heimr "snake", grafvitnir "grave-wolf, worm", heibi "heath-dweller, snake", vallbaugr "earth-ring, that which coils on the ground, snake", gullbi "dweller with the gold, dragon", fold-sili "earth-ribbon, snake", fold vringi "Varangian of the earth, snake", snkr "snake", makr "worm".

OE: draca "serpent, dragon", ndre "snake", wyrm "snake, reptile", htsceaa "enemy of the dawn, dragon", ttorsceaa "venomous enemy, serpent", ferhgenla "life-enemy, dragon, serpent", ealdorgewinna "deadly foe, dragon", lgdraca "fiery-dragon", snaca "snake", ndraca "hostile dragon", gfloga "war-like flier, dragon", eordraca "earth-dragon, serpent", sdraca "sea-dragon, sea serpent", goldweard "gold-ward, dragon", bansnaca "bane-snake, venomous serpent", htfloga "flier by dawn, dragon".

OS: wurm "snake, serpent", nadara "viper, adder".

 

d) Raven(s), Eagle, Cuckoo, Hen

ON: hrafn "raven", dlgskri "gull of war, raven", hrskurr "corpse-shearer, raven", hr-fugl "corpse-bird, raven", hrgammr "corpse-vulture, raven", benskri "gull of wounds, raven", haukr gunnr "battle-hawk, raven", haukr hrs "hawk of the slain, raven", undgagl "wound-bird, raven", valgagl "bird of death, raven", huginn "the sensible, the concious; thought" (name of one of Odin's ravens), sveita svanr "blood-swan, raven", blgagl "blood-goose, raven", beniurr "wound-goose, raven", geira hrar gjr "osprey of the spear-storm, raven", dlgsvala "battle-swallow, raven", ngagl "corpse-goose, raven", hrva gaukr "corpse-cuckoo, raven", Yggar mr "Yggr's seagull, raven" (Yggr is a name for Odin), Yggs svanr "Yggr's swan, raven", Gauts gaukr "Gautr's cuckoo, raven" (Gautr is a name for Odin), hjaldrs trani "crane of battle, raven", tfrekir ins haukar "Odin's greedy hawks, ravens", blhelsingi "blood-goose, raven", valgjr "vulture of the slain, raven", blvalr "blood-hawk, raven", vgstari "battle-starling, raven", flkstari "battle-starling, raven", gunnmr "war-gull, raven", gunnvalr "battle-hawk, raven", hrskfr "corpse-skua, raven", benmr "wound-gull, raven", srgagl "wound-goose, raven", undgjr "wound-vulture, raven", bergir bls "drinker of blood, raven", Jalfas svanr "swan of Odin, raven", ari "eagle", rn "eagle", valfugl "bird of the slain, eagle", hrsvelgr "chooser of the slain, eagle", haukr hjrleiks "hawk of the sword-play, eagle", valr unda "hawk of wounds, eagle", hergammr "war-vulture, eagle", srmtari "wound-hawk, eagle", hani "hen", salgaukr "hall-cuckoo, hen, chicken", gullinkambi "golden-crest" (a hen of the sir).

OE: hrfn "raven", hremm "raven", lyftscaa "air-pirate, raven", wlcasiga "chooser of the slain, raven", nihthrc "night-rook, raven", earn "eagle", gfugol "war-bird, eagle", ghafoc "war-hawk, eagle", gac "cuckoo", sumeres weard "guardian of summer, cuckoo", hnn "hen", henfugol "hen, chicken".

 

e) Fish, Whale

ON: fiskr "fish", hvalr "whale", sjfang "burden of the sea, fish".

OE: fisc "fish", brimhlst "burden of the sea, fish", holmes lst "burden of the sea, fish", laguswimmend "flood-swimmer, fish", wgdor "beast of the waves, fish", merefisc "sea-fish", sfisc "sea-fish", hwl "whale", hran "whale", hranfisc "whale", mereweard "guardian of the flood, whale", grsecges gst "guest of the sea, whale", fyrnstrama geflota "floater of the ancient sea-streams, whale", wterisa "water-traverser, whale".

OS: fisk "fish".

 

            6) Other Natural Phenomena

 

a) The Earth, World

ON: fold "earth, land", grund "earth", jr "earth", land "land", mold "soil, land", heimr "world", migarr "the middle enclosure" (i.e. the world of men, as opposed to sgarr, the dwelling of the gods), jrmungrund "huge-ground, the world", heimst "homestead, the world", aurvangr "mud-plain, the earth", alda v "dwelling of men, the world", grn "the ever-green, the earth", grandi "the growing, the earth", ljheimr "the world of men", mis hold "the flesh of mir, the earth", heimskringla "the orb of the earth", foldvegr "earth", ins kvon "lady of Odin, the earth", salar steinar "the hall of stones, the earth", fjrgyn "plain of the gods, the earth" (from *fjrg-vin), foldvegr "earth", aldaheimr "the world of men", verld "the world".

OE: eore "earth", folde "earth, soil", hrse "earth, ground", molde "soil, earth", grund "ground, the earth", middangeard "the middle enclosure, the world", odland "folksland, the world of people, the earth", gumena rce "kingdom of men, the world", ymbhwyrft "world, circuit", se wlitebeorhta wang "the beautiful plain, the earth", eardgeard "earth-yard", eormengrund "the wide world", woruldrce "the worldly kingdom", eorrce "the earthly kingdom", folcwang "folk-plain, the land of men, the world", woruld "the world, the earth".

OS: era "earth", fold "earth, land", gard "enclosure, the world", werold "world", middilgard "the middle enclosure, the world", grni wang "the green plain, the world", brda bland "the broad inhabited land, the earth", er-rki "the earthly kingdom", werold-rki "the worldly kingdom".

 

b) Sun, Moon, Stars

ON: sl "sun", sunna "sun", lfrull "disc of the elves, sun", eygl "ever-glowing, the sun", fagra hvl "wheel of beauty, the sun", rull "sun, halo", himna skjldr "shield of the heavens, the sun", gullinn hvl "the golden wheel, the sun", alskr "the all-pure, the sun", eldr himins "fire of the heavens, the sun", eldr lopts "fire of the sky, the sun", himintarga "the heavenly round shield, the sun", brr himins "bride of the heavens, the sun", sinni mna "mate of the moon, the sun", systir mna "sister of the moon, the sun", leika Dvalins "the instrument of Dvalinn, the sun", heimsl "the sun", mni "the moon", tungl "moon", mylinn "the moon", skin "shine, the moon", skyndir "the hastening one, the moon", rtali "reckoner of time, the moon", hverfanda hvl "the turning wheel, the moon", skir "the moon", stjarna "star".

OE: sunne "the sun", sigel "star, sun", sl "the sun", swegl "the sun", heofonloma "the light of the heavens, the sun", swegles loma "light of the heavens, the sun", swegles loht "light of the heavens, the sun", heofones gim "gem of the sky, the sun", swegles gim "gem of the sky, the sun", sweglcandel "candle of the sky, the sun", heofoncandel "candle of the heavens, the sun", woroldcandel "the world's candle, the sun", mna "the moon", lyftft "vessel of the sky, the moon", steorra "star", tungol "star, heavenly body", rodortungol "star of the heavens", heofontungol "star of the heavens", heofonsteorra "star", tungolgimm "gem of the heavens, star".

OS: sunna "the sun", himil-tungal "heavenly body, star", sterro "star", tungal "star", hean-tungal "heavenly body, star", mno "moon".

 

c) Wind, Rain, Storm, Rainbow, Cloud

ON: vindr "wind", pir "screamer, that which howls, the wind", dynfari "the noisy traveller, wind", hviur "the stormy, wind", bani viar "bane of branches, wind", vandar jtunn "giant of the boughs, wind", regn "rain", skja grtr "tears of the clouds, rain", stormr "storm", kvistschadend "ravager of boughs, storm", hr "storm, blizzard", sk "cloud", skrvn "expetaction of shower, cloud", rvn "expectation of shower, cloud", vindflot "floater in the wind, cloud", vermegin "weather-might, cloud".

OE: blst "blast, gust", wind "wind", regn "rain", scr "rainshower", storm "storm", wolcen "cloud", heofonwolcen "sky-cloud", lyftedor "clouds", genip "cloud, mist".

OS: wind "wind", regin "rain", skr "rainshower", storm "storm", wolkan "cloud", himil-wolkan "cloud", wolkanskion "overcast sky".

 

d) Sky

ON: himinn "heavens", hlyrnir "the sky", uppheimr "upper-realm, sky", vindheimr "realm of the wind, sky", vindker "wind-vessel, sky", vindhjlmr "wind-helm, sky", vindofnir "wind-weaver, sky", land slar "land of the sun, sky", slar hjlmr "helm of the sun, sky", rulstjald "tent of the sun, sky", slborg "stronghold of the sun, sky", mnasalr "hall of the moon, sky", fuglvegr "the bird's road, sky", logskrn "chest of flame, sky", mis hauss "skull of mir, sky", skdrpnir "cloud-Draupnir (i.e. cloud-ring, orb; Draupnir was a magic gold ring owned by Odin), sky", dynheimar "realm of noise, the sky", vallrfr "roof of the earth, sky", dags hll "hall of the day, sky", vinda hll "hall of the wind, sky", heimtjald "tent of the world, sky", fold-salr "the earth's hall, sky", slar bl "lair of the sun, sky", slbryggja "causeway of the sun, sky", slhll "hall of the sun, sky", slknrr "ship of the sun, sky", slrann "hall of the sun, sky", sltjald "tent of the sun, sky", slvangr "plain of the sun, sky", tunglbryggja "causeway of the moon, sky", skja tjald "tent of the clouds, sky", skrann "house of the clouds, sky", skja skrn "shrine of the clouds, sky", skfold "ground of the clouds, sky".

OE: heofon "heavens", lyft "sky", rodor "sky", swegl "sky".

OS: radur "sky, heavens", himil "sky", luft "air, sky", hean "heavens", hean-wang "plain of the heavens, sky".

 

e) Water

ON: brunnr "well, spring", floti "fleet", fl "flood", vatn "water", bl bjargs "blood of the hills, mountain stream", dreyri jarar "blood of the earth, groundwater", troll jarar "enemy of the land, water", troll elds "enemy of fire, water", vangr lsu "fishes' plain, water".

OE: lagu "water, sea, flood", wter "water, sea", mere "lake, pool, sea", burn "well; brook, water".

OS: lagu "water, flood", watar "water", mer "mere, flood", brunno "spring, water", fld "flood".

 

f) Wood, Forest

ON: vir "wood", eldi "fuel, firewood", vallar fax "mane of the plain, wood, forest", jarar haddr "the earth's hair, woodland", skgr "wood, forest", mrk "forest, wood", holt "wood, small forest".

OE: bearu "wood, grove", holt "wood, copse", holtwudu "wood, copse", wuduholt "forest", weald "forest".

OS: wald "wood, forest", lh "wood, grove", holt "wood".

 

g) Mountain, Cliffs, Hills

ON: fjall, fell "mountain, hill", bjarg, berg "mountain, large hill", klif "cliff, steep hill".

OE: beorg "hill", munt "mountain", hli "hill, slope", hyll "hill", dn "down, mountain, hill", gebeorg "hill, cliff", hlinc "hill, ridge", clif "cliff, crag".

OS: berg "hill, mountain", klif "cliff", felis "cliff, rock", stn-holm "rock".

 

7) Heathen cult, Germanic Myth, Legend and Folklore

 

a) Odin, Woden

ON: Friggjar angan "the joy of Frigg" (Odin's wife), sa bragr "greatest of the sir", yggjungr sa "king of the sir", galdrs fair "father of sorcery", Aldafair or Aldafr "father of men", Grmnir "the masked one", Herfr or Herfair "father of warriors", Herjafair "father of warriors", Yggr "frightening, fearful (one)" (stands in umlaut relation to uggr "fear"), Hrptr (also rptr) perhaps "slanderer, oath breaker" (< vb. hrpa "slander, defame"), hanga heimingar "visitor of the hanged", undr perhaps "bow-bender" (Olsen; cf. modern Icelandic undur "bow"; the Odin-name unnr probably also belongs here; Branston prefers "thunderer" but this would apply better to Thor), Hnkarr, Hnikur "one who incites to battle", Sigrhfundr "author of victory", hrafnagu "god of ravens", hrafnfreistur "tempter of ravens", hrafnblts goi "heathen priest of sacrifice to the raven", hrafnss "god of the raven", Jlnir (related to jln "gods" (lit. yule-gods; from Proto-Norse *jlna), valfr "lord of the slain", drauga drttinn "lord of the dead", Shttr "broad-hat", Httr "hat", Karl "old man", Hrbarr "greybeard", Sigmundr (after the hero), Gizurr (after the hero), Skilfingr "shaker" (?) (ancestor of Ynglingr; also means "prince, chief"), Fjlnir "one who has many forms" or "the all-wise" (< Fjlsvir), Blverkr "evil-doer", Vegtamr "road-practised", Hangagu "god of the hanged", Hangi "hanged", Gautr "father of the Goths" or "Creator", Njtr (possibly from OE god Seaxneat or OS god Saxnot) or perhaps "user" < njta (used in many kennings to denote Odin), Sigfair and Sigfr "father of victory", Svfnir "giver of sleep, slayer", Langbarr "long-beard", Arnhfi "eagle-headed", Bjarki "small bear", Blindr "blind", Tvblindi "double-blind", Bleygr "fire-eyed", Harr (probably) "one-eyed" (PN *haihahariR, cf. Gothic haihs "one-eyed"), Hvi "the tall", Sskeggr "long-beard", Jrmunr and Jrundr (a later corruption) from "Earmanric", an ancient Germanic king (ON Jrmenrekr, OE Eormenrc), Hliskjlfar harri "lord of Hliskjlf", Hliskjlfar gramr "lord of Hliskjlf", Hrosshrsgrani "horse-hair-beard", Jlkr "gelding", Alfr "father of all", glga farmr "the gallows burden", geirs drttinn "lord of the spear", glga valdr "lord of the gallows", Hangatr "god of the hanged", Gungnis vfar "the shaker of Gungnir" (Odin's spear), hroptatr perhaps "the slander-god", hropta rgna perhaps "the slander-god, slanderer among the gods", Hverungr "one who storms, howls", Geirlonir "the hairy one with the spear", Geirlnir "the one with spear on the forearm", Gunnblindi "blinder in war", Farmagu, Farmatr either "god of trade" or more likely a reference to the theft of the mead of poetry (de Vries), Valgnir "receiver of the chosen", valgautr "slaughter-god", valtr "god of the slain", valkjsandi "chooser of the slain", hengikeptr "hinge-jaw", Grmr "the masked one", Hlfr "renowned father", Hlfreyr "renowned lord", Viurr "the adversary" or perhaps "father of the weather-Geats" (OE Wederas), hertr "god of warriors", aldagautr "father of men", Unnr either "the belligerent" (< vinna), "the beloved" (< unna) or "god of the people" (< vinr) (de Vries), fnir "one who incites", Lndungr and Loungr "Odin" (explanations unsatisfactory), Sir "spell-caster", Siggautr "victory-god", Geigur "vagrant, roamer" (Egilsson; de Vries prefers to read "he who swung on the gallows"), fjallgeigur "roamer in the mountains", Rgnir "ruler (of the gods and the world)", Herjann "lord of battles, ruler", Valfair "father of the slain", Glapsvir "the one skilled in beguilement", Hergautr "god of war", Herteitr "battle-glad, lover of strife", Dresvarpr (perhaps related to older Icelandic dres "high spirits" or Danish dialectal drsel "battle" (de Vries)), Svegir, Sveigir "one who bends (others to his will)" (from sveigja "bow, bend"; de Vries reads the second element as r "servant"), Rgnhroptr perhaps "slander-lord of the gods" or "divine slanderer", Kjalarr literally "keel" perhaps with original meaning "nurturer" (see de Vries), Sigtr "god of victory", Bileygr "the weak-eyed", Hr "High One", gagn-rr "he who counsels victory (in battle)", Jafnhrr "equally high", Veratr "god of men", Hangadrttinn "lord of the hanged", Hrr "the hard", Brni, Brnn either "the brown" or "the god with the bushy brow" (de Vries), riggi "the triune", Tveggi "double, hermaphrodite", Jlfr (lit.) "horse-wolf" (< Gmic.*ehwa-wulfaz; de Vries), Vihrmnir "the screaming adversary", Sigir apparently segi "strip of meat" + r "servant" (de Vries); meaning unclear, rr "the thriving, flourishing" (< rast "thrive, flourish"), rungr perhaps related to Nynorsk yrja "swarm, teem", yr "elated, giddy, ectastic", Swedish yr "wild", yra "delirium, frenzy" (de Vries), drttinn foldar "lord of the earth", Virir "ruler of the weather", Drrur "spear-warrior" (< *darr-hr (de Vries)), Jalfar and Jlfur "bear" (de Vries), Gangleri "the travel-weary" (second element related to lra "incompetent person, wretch" (de Vries), Gaprosnir from gapi "magic symbol" and either i) rosnir (< *-rosknir < roskast "grow to full age") or ii) modern Icelandic rusk "noise, din" (de Vries); Egilsson reads the first element as "man with stupid appearance", Sgrani "the one with drooping moustache", Atrir "rider into battle", Sviurr, Sviur and Svirir are probably related to sva "smart, sting; burn, singe" with a meaning of "spear-god", cf. modern Icelandic sva "smart, sting; burn", New Norwegian svide "burn, scorch, smart, sting" (de Vries), Gangrr "the wanderer, traveller", Lurs vinr "friend of Lurr" (a minor god), Lopts vinr "friend of Loptr (Loki)", Svipall "the one with shifting appearance", Svipdagr (apparently) "the one with countenance clear as day", inn "Odin", Vden "Odin" (called this by Snorri in his Edda - does not exhibit characteristic Scandinavian loss of intitial w-), Hjlmberi "helmet bearer", ekkr "much loved", rii "third", Helblindi "the one who brings the blindness of death" (Egilsson), Sanngetall "truthful", Fjlsvir "wide in wisdom", ski "god of wishes", Gndlir "staff-bearer", Vakr "wakeful", Vfur either "he who dangled on Yggdrasill" or "wind-god" (de Vries), mi most commemtators see a derivative formed from mun "sound, voice" and the name is then interpreted as "shouter, crier" or "the noisy one", with Egilsson prefering the subtler meaning of "distant sound-maker" through a different interpretation of mun, Gojaarr "prince of the gods, Odin", Hvi "the high one", Gestumblindi a development of Gest-inn-Blinda referring to Odin's wanderings and his one-eyed vision, Raugrani "red-beard", bvar Tr "god of the battle", rttr "power, strength" (cf. ON rttr "strength, might, valour").

OE: Woden "furious one" (cf. OE wd "senseless, mad, furious"), Grim "masked one, Woden" [found in English place-names for massive prehistoric earthworks].

OS: Wodan, Wden "furious one, Woden" (cf. OS wdian "rage, storm, rave").

 

b) Thor, Thunor

ON: ins sunr "Odin's son", Yggs barn "Yggr's son" (i.e. Odin's son), Jarar burr "son of the earth", Magna fair "father of Magni", fair Ma "father of Ma", Sifjar verr "Sif's man", brjtr bergdana "breaker of giants", hafra drttinn "lord of the he-goats", ggjar grtir "sorrower of giantesses", Vurr and Vur (perhaps from *v-vrr with the second element from verja "defend, protect", cf. runic Swedish uiauari "guardian of the temple" (Egilsson suggests "protector" or "ruler") or same as runic Danish wigionar < *wihi-onraR "consecration-Thor" (de Vries)), hinn almttki ss "the almighty god", Herrumu Gautr "the god of battle-thunder", Vignir and Vingnir cf. Vingrr (de Vries suggests relation to Icelandic vingla "confuse, make giddy, swim around" and therefore something like "swinger"), Vingrr (de Vries suggests the first element may be a corrupted form of PN whaR "warrior", although other explanations have been put forward), hafra njtr "user of goats", sa bragr "foremost of the sir, Thor", tti jtna "terror of the giants", einheri "lone warrior" (cf. the ON name Einarr with the same meaning), ku-rr meaning unclear - first element is from aka "drive, convey", alda bergr "defence of men, Thor", sarr "sir-Thor", unnarr (an older form of rr), karms Tr "god of the chariot".

OE: unor "Thunor", r, r "Thor" (a loan of the Norse form).

OS: Thunar "Thunor".

 

c) Frey and Freyja

ON: bani Belja "slayer of Beli", Njarar burr "son of Njrr", sa jaarr "protector of the gods", Yngvi "father of the Ynglings", Yngvi-Freyr "Freyr", Flkvaldi goa "general of the gods, the gods' leader in battle", Atrii "rider into battle, Freyr", veraldar go "god of the world, Freyr", bltgu sva "sacrificial god of the Swedes", svago "the god of the Swedes", inn fri "the fruitful (one), Frey", s mr "girl of ", Njarar dttir "daughter of Njrr", Sr "sow, Freyja", Vanads "goddess of the Vanir", Vanabrr "bride of the Vanir", Hrn "Freyja", Marll "Freyja", Gefn "giver, Freyja".

 

d) Tr/Tw, Heimdallr, Viarr, Njrr, Loki, Baldr

ON: ttnir jtna "kin of the giants, Tr", hinn einhendi ss "the one-handed god, Tr", vrr goa "watchman of the gods, Heimdallr", hvtastr sa "brightest of the sir, Heimdallr", hvti ss "the shining god, Heimdallr", Gullintanni "golden-toothed, Heimdallr", Hallinski "the one with inclined stick, Heimdallr", Vindlr (perhaps) "defender against the wind, Heimdallr", mgr Sigfur "son of Odin, Viarr", manna engill "prince of men, Njrr", brir Bleists "brother of Bleistr, Loki", lfs fair "father of the wolf, Loki", Laufeyjar sonr "son of Laufey, Loki", Loptr probably "sky-traveller, Loki" (this view, supported by Egilsson, is rejected by de Vries), rbani Baldrs "contriver of Balder's death, Loki", farmr Sigynjar "burden of Sigyn's arms, Loki", lgseims fair "father of the rope of the ocean, Loki" (the "rope of the ocean" is the Midgard-Serpent), rgbera "slander-bearer, Loki", Hverungr "one who storms, howls, Loki", blgum tvur "the blood-stained god, Baldr", blugr tvurr "the bloody god, Baldr".

OE: Tw "Tiw", Tg "Tiw".

 

e) God, Deity, Divinity, Gods and related 

ON: tr "heathen god" (an archaic, poetic word; cf. Tr), ss "heathen god, one of the sir", gu, go "god, God", vanr "one of the Vanir", godmr, gudmr "godhead, divinity", skunnigr, gokunnigr "related, akin to the gods", smegin "divine might of the gods", smegir "sons of the gods", synja "goddess", goheimr "world of the gods", sgarr "dwelling of the gods (sir), Asgard", gomgn "the divine powers, deities", goagremi, goareii "wrath of the gods", goj "god-folk, the gods", gomlugr "skilled in the gods' lore", goaheill "favour of the gods", govegr "way of the gods", regin "the ruling powers, the gods", rgn "the gods", reginkunnigr "sprung from the gods, divine", tvar "the gods" (plural of tr above), regindmr "divinity, godhead", tvurr "heathen god", safolk "the sir", saheimr "the dwelling, world of the gods", satt "the kin, race of the gods", goagfi "gift of the gods", gomagn "divinity, divine power", gudmsafl, gudmskrapt "divine power", bltgu "sacrificial god".

OE: god "god, deity, God", s "god" (cf. ON ss), godcundnes "divinity", godmgen "god-main, divinity", gyden "goddess".

OS: god "god, God", s "god", godkundi "divinity, deity".

 

f) Temple, Shrine, Heathen Priest, Heathen, Idol, Idolatry, Sacrifice

ON: goahs "heathen temple", hof "heathen temple", hofstar "sanctuary", blthof "sacrificial, heathen temple", blths "sacrificial, heathen temple", goastka "altar room in a heathen temple", blthrgr "sacrifical stone altar, sacred sacrificial spot", bltlundr "sacrificial grove", bltskgr "sacrificial forest", bltstar "place of sacrifice", bltstallr "sacrificial altar", bltveizla "sacrificial banquet", bltvllr "sacrificial plain", hrgr "stone altar, heathen shrine", v "heathen shrine", bltkelda "sacrificial well", blthaugr "sacrificial mound", blt "sacrifice; idol", bltan, bltnar "sacrificing, idolatry", bltbiskup "sacrificial bishop, heathen priest", bltgoi "heathen sacrificing priest", bltgyja "heathen sacrificing priestess", goi "heathen priest", hofgoi "temple priest", hofgyja "temple priestess", hofprestr "heathen priest", bltkennimar "one skilled in the blt, heathen priest", bltkona "idolatress", hofhelgr "temple feast", hofseir "temple oath", bltmar "one who sacrifices, idolater", bltskapr "heathen worship, idolatry; sacrifice", bltf "goods or cattle used in sacrifice", bltskaparefni "thing used as an idol", hofsbrot "destruction of a heathen temple", bltskapartmi "heathen times, the pre-Christian period", heiingi "heathen man" (also "wolf"), heiinn "heathen, pagan", heini "heathenism", djflablt "sacrifice to devils, idolatry, heathenism".

OE: ealh "shrine", ealhstede "temple", wg "shrine, sacred spot; idol", hearg "hill sanctuary", tempel "temple", scrn "shrine", wgsteall "sanctuary", hof "temple, sanctuary" (also "house, hall, dwelling"), heargtrf "heathen temple", heargweard "hearg-ward, heathen priest", wggild "idol", wgweorung "idolatry", gedwolgod "idol", dofolgield "worship of the devil, idolatry", godgield "worship of a heathen god, idol", dwoling "idol", dofolgielda "one who pays the devil, idolater", dofolscipe "idolatry", dofolcrft "idolatry; witchcraft", dwolcrft "occult, magic", scucagield "idol", hendm "paganism, heathendom", henfeoh "heathen sacrifice", hengield "idolatry; idol", hengielda "idolater, heathen", hennes "paganism, heathendom", henscipe "heathen belief, paganism", hen "heathen, pagan man", offrung "sacrifice", offrian "to sacrifice", offrunghs "house of sacrifice", dofolgieldhs "idol-shrine", blt "heathen sacrifice", bltan "to sacrifice", bltere "sacrificer", bltung "sacrificing", bltorc "sacrificial vessel", bltmna "month of sacrifice".

OS: rukud "temple", alah "shrine", wh "shrine", tempel "temple", hinnussa "paganism, heathendom", wh-rk "temple incense", wh-stedi "shrine, temple".

 

g) Giant(s), Giantess, Troll, Dwarves, Elves, Goblins, Sprites and Monsters

ON: jtunn "giant", hverungr "giant", risi "giant", urs "giant", bergbi "mountain-dweller, giant", bergdanir "mountain-dwellers, giantfolk", hraunbi "dwellers of the lava-plains, giants", bjarga gtir "guardians of the mountains, giants", ttrunnr apa "kin of the apes, giants", bergrsi "mountain giant", hrmurs "frost giant", vignir "giant", bergjarl "rock-earl, giant", hafli "giant", grr "giantess", ggr "giantess", hla "giantess", brr jtuns "bride of a giant, giantess", flag "giantess", troll-karl "troll, giant", troll-menni "a giant-like man, troll", troll-kerling "female troll, giantess" (also "a woman who cultivates magic"), troll-kona "female troll, giantess" (also "a woman who cultivates magic"), dwergr "dwarf", lfr "elf, fairy", lfakyn "the race of elves", lfkona "elven woman", lfkunnigr "akin to the elves", pki "devil, fiend".

OE: ent "giant", yrs "giant", eoten "giant, ogre", eotena cyn "the race of giants", eotenisc "giant-like, of the giants", enta geweorc "the work of giants", dweorg "dwarf", lf "elf, fairy", lfcynn "the race of elves", lfen "fairy, sprite", ylfe "elves", wudulfen "wood-elf", slfen "sea-elf", pca, pcel "goblin", scucca "sprite, evil demon", grma "ghost", glca "monster, dragon", egesa "monster", ffel "sea-monster", ffelcyn "race of sea-monsters".

OS: thuris giant, eton giant, gi-dwerg dwarf. 

 

h) Valkyrie(s), Witch(es), Wizard(s)

ON: valkyrja "warrioress, valkyrie", alvtr "unearthly sprite, valkyrie", flkvtr "battle sprite, valkyrie", hjlmvtr "helmeted sprite, valkyrie", hjlmvttr "helmeted sprite, valkyrie", srvtr "wound-sprite, valkyrie", skmr "wish-maiden, valkyrie", sigrdrifa "decider of victory, valkyrie", valmr "maiden of the slain, valkyrie", geirnul "one who carries the spear on the forearm, valkyrie", geirriful "spear-valkyrie", geirdriful "valkyrie", geirskgul "spear-valkyrie", valgn "receiver of the slain, valkyrie", gefn "giver (i.e. to Odin), valkyrie", randgrr "shield bearer, valkyrie", gn "receiver (of the slain), valkyrie", Skgul "raging one, valkyrie", kveldria "evening-rider, witch", myrkria "rider in the darkness, witch", tnria "one who rides over the settlements, witch", herjans ds "Odin's ds, valkyrie", Herjans dsir "Odin's dsir, valkyries", valdrs "maid of slaughter, valkyrie", valfreyja "lady of slaughter, valkyrie", valgrindar Gefn "woman at the gates of Vallhalla, valkyrie", flk-Rn "plunderer of battle, valkyrie", sverman "sword-woman, valkyrie", geirflj "spear-woman, valkyrie", skjaldar hrund "shield-maiden, valkyrie", sigrflj "victory-lady, valkyrie", sigrmr "victory-maiden, valkyrie", skratti "wizard, warlock", skratta-karl "evil sorcerer, wizard", sei-skratti "wizard", sei-berandi "bearer of magic, wizard, sorcerer", sei-kona "a woman who cultivates magic arts, witch", sei-mar "a man who cultivates magic arts, wizard", galdra-kind "evil witch", galdra-kona "a woman who cultivates magic arts, witch", galdra-kerling "an old woman who cultivates magic arts, witch", galdra-mar "a man who cultivates magic arts, wizard", galdra-raumr "a troll-like person who practises magic, great sorcerer", galdra-smir "a master of magic, sorcerer", galdra-karl "a man who cultivates magic, wizard", galdra-skja "wizzened old sorceress, old hag, witch", forda "witch", fordu-mar "wizard, sorcerer", vgglr "witch".

OE: wicca "warlock", wicce "witch", hgtesse "witch", drecge "sorceress", htse "witch", wlcyrige "sorceress", drmann "wizard, sorcerer", wiglere "wizard", dofolwtga "phrophet of the devil, wizard, magician".

 

i) Poetry, Poem

ON: skldskapr "scald-ship, poetry", skip dverga "ship of the dwarves, poetry", Yggs full "vessel of Yggr, poetry", ins mjr "mead of Odin, poetry", Kvsis dreyri "blood of Kvsir, poetry", jtna mjr "mead of the giants, poetry", gjf ins "gift of Odin, poetry", hinn dri mjr "the beloved mead, poetry", ins gir "the sea of Odin, poetry", Viurs fi "the theft of Viur, poetry", Gauta gildi "the feast of Gauti, poetry", arnar kjapta r "seed of the eagle's bill, poetry", helga full Hrafnsar "holy cup of the Raven-god (i.e. Odin), poetry", Gillings gjld "the weregild for Gilling, poetry", dverga drykkja "drink of the dwarves, poetry", Yggs mjr "the mead of Yggr, poetry", Grmnis gjf "the gift of Grmnir, poetry" (Grmnir is an Odin-name), Surts ttar sylgr "the drink of the kin of Surtr, poetry", dvergregn "rain of the dwarves, the scaldic mead, poetry", Dvalins full "the vessel of Dvalinn, poetry", r "poetry", Herjans hrr "the praise of Odin, poetry", bragr "poetry", ins drykkr "the drink of Odin, poetry", ins lgr "the water of Odin, poetry", gjr "lyrical construction, poetry", lj "poem, song", ljagr "the making of lays, poetry; poem".

OE: locrft "song-skill, poetry", loweorc "song-work, poetry", wordcrft "word-craft, poetry", scopcrft "poetry", lewse "poetry", losang "poem", lowrence "poem".

 

*Sources

A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary by John R. Clark-Hall, University Toronto Press, Toronto, 1960;
A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic by Geir T. Zoga, Oxford U.P., 1922;
A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages by Carl Darling Buck, London: University of Chicago Press, 1988;
A Grouped Frequency Wordlist of Anglo-Saxon Poetry by John F. Madden & Francis P. Magoun, Harvard OE Series, Harvard U.P., 1967;
Altenglisches etymologisches Wrterbuch by Ferdinand Holthausen, Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universittsverlag, 1974;
Altgermanische Religionsgeschichte by Jan de Vries, 2 vols., Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co., 1970;
Altnordisches Etymologisches Wrterbuch by Jan de Vries, Zweite verbesserte Auflage, Leiden: Brill, 2000;
Altschsisches Elementarbuch by Ferdinand Holthausen, Heidelberg: Carl Winter Verlag, 1921;
Altschsische Grammatik by Johan H. Galle, Max Niemeyer Verlag, Tbingen, 1993;

Altschsisches Wrterbuch by Ferdinand Holthausen, Kln: Bhlau Verlag, 1967;
De Oudgermaansche Dichtertaal in haar Ethnologisch Verband by Alberta J. Portengen, Leiden, 1915;
Gods and Myths of Northern Europe by H.R. Ellis Davidson, London: Penguin Books, 1964;
Gods of the North by Brian Branston, London: Thames and Hudson, 1980;
Hliand, nebst den Bruchstcken der altschsischen Genesis by Moritz Heyne, Paderborn, 1905;
slensk Orabk by rni Bvarsson, Ml og Menning, Reykjavk, 1996;
Kurzer Grundriss der germanischen Philologie bis 1500: (Band 1 Sprachgeschicte), by Schmitt, L.E. (ed.), Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co., 1970;
Myth and Religion of the North by E.O.G. Turville-Petre, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1964;
Norrn Ordbok by Leiv Heggstad, Finn Hdneb & Erik Simensen, Det Norske Samlaget, Oslo, 1997;
Ordbog over det norsk-islandske Skjaldesprog by Sveinbjrn Egilsson, 2. udgave ved Finnur Jnsson, Kbenhavn: S.L. Mllers Bogtrykkeri, 1931;
Sprachschatz der Angelschsischen Dichter by C.M.W. Grein, Carl Winters Universittsbuchhandlung, Heidelberg, 1912;
Wordcraft: Concise Dictionary and Thesaurus Modern English-Old English by Steve Pollington, Anglo-Saxon Books, Norfolk, 1993;
Word-Hoard: An Introduction to Old English Vocabulary by Stephen A. Barney, Yale U.P., New Haven, 1985;

 

 

* Credits: many thanks go to Reinhard "Ron" Hahn for his invaluable assistance in determining those OS words which survived into Middle Low Saxon and modern Low Saxon, as well as Elas Halldr gstsson, Gujn Torfi Sigursson and Gumundur Skarphinsson, who gave superb help in unravelling the literal and figurative meanings of some the more obscure ON compounds, as well as some insheiti.

 


 

Edward Smith 2011.

E-mail the author

                                                                                                               

Home